As in all statistical exercises based on sampling, the acquisition of samples is a critical step in estimating the composition of MSW. The principal considerations in collecting samples are the following:
Each pound of waste in the waste stream to be characterized must have an equal opportunity to be represented in the final results. The greater the number of samples, the more precise the results.
The greater the variation between samples, the more samples must be sorted to achieve a given level of precision. The greater the time spent collecting the samples, the less time is available to sort the samples. The more the waste is handled prior to sorting, the more difficult and less precise the sorting.
A fundamental question is the time period(s) over which to collect the samples. One-week periods are generally used because most human activity and most refuse collection schedules repeat on a weekly basis. Sampling during a week in each season of the year is preferable. Spring sampling is particularly important because generation of yard waste, the most variable waste category, is generally least in the winter and greatest in the spring.
Another fundamental question is whether to collect the samples at the places where the waste is generated or at the solid waste facilities where the waste is taken. Sampling at solid waste facilities is generally preferred. Collecting samples at the points of generation may be necessary under the following circumstances, however:
The primary objective is to characterize the waste generated by certain sources, such as specific types of businesses.
The identity of the facilities to which the waste is taken is not known or cannot be predicted with confidence for any given week. The facilities are widely spaced, increasing the difficulty and cost of the sampling and sorting operation. Access to the facilities cannot be obtained. Sufficient space to set up a sorting operation is not available at the facilities. Appropriate loads of waste (e.g., loads from the geographic area to be characterized) do not arrive at the facilities frequently enough to support an efficient sampling and sorting operation.
Sampling at the points of generation tends to be more expensive and less valid than sampling at solid waste facilities. The added expense results from the increased effort required to design the sampling protocol and the travel time involved in collecting the samples.
The decreased validity of sampling at the points of generation has two principal causes. First, a significant portion of the waste is typically inaccessible. Waste can be inaccessible because it is on private property to which access is denied or because it is in trash compactors. Some waste is inaccessible during the day because it is not placed in outdoor trash containers until after business hours and it is picked up early in the morning. The second major cause of inaccuracy is that the relative portion of the waste stream represented by each trash receptacle is unknown because the frequency of pickup and the average quantity in the receptacle at each pickup are unknown. Random selection of receptacles to be sampled results in under-
sampling of the more active receptacles, which represent more waste.
These problems are generally less acute for residential MSW than for commercial or institutional MSW. Residential MSW is usually accessible for sampling from the curb on collection day or from dumpsters serving mul-tifamily residences. Because households generate similar quantities of waste, random selection of households for sampling gives each pound of waste a similar probability of being included in a sample. In addition, because waste characteristics are more consistent from household to household than from business to business, flaws in a residential sampling program are generally less significant than flaws in a commercial sampling program.
A universal protocol for sampling solid waste from the points of generation is impossible to state because circumstances vary greatly from place to place and from study to study. The following are general principles to follow:
Collect samples from as many different sectors of the target area as possible without oversampling relatively insignificant sectors. If possible, collect samples from commercial locations in proportion to the size of the waste receptacles used and the frequency of pickup. Collect samples from single-family and multifamily residences in proportion to the number of people living in each type of residence (unless a more sophisticated basis is readily available). The required population information can be obtained from U.S. census publications. Give field personnel no discretion in selecting locations at which to collect samples. For example, field personnel should not be told to collect a sample from Elm Street but rather to collect a sample from the east side of Elm Street, starting with the second house (or business) north from Park Street. To the extent feasible, add all waste from each selected location to the sample before going on to the next location. This practice reduces the potential for sampling bias.
Collecting samples at solid waste facilities is less expensive than collecting them at the points of generation and is more likely to produce valid results. Sample collection at facilities is less expensive because no travel is required. Samples collected at facilities are more likely to represent the waste being characterized because they are typically selected from a single line of trucks of known size that contain the entire waste stream.
Collecting samples at solid waste facilities has two stages: selecting the truck from which to take the sample and collecting the sample from the load discharged from the selected truck.
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