Selecting Treatment Technologies

Before implementing any in-plant controls or pretreatment alternatives, the industry should first explore ways to reduce production of specific pollutants and then examine the feasibility of recycling or reusing the wastewater generated during production. For example, the concentrated solution obtained from cleanup operations can be recycled as part of the starting materials for the next production run. Additional steps for reducing wastewater requiring treatment include good housekeeping practices; spill control measures, such as spill containment enclosures and drip trays around tanks; and eliminating wet floor areas.

The principal pollutants affected by modifying industrial manufacturing processes and in-plant treatment methods are as follows:

• Insoluble substances that can be separated physically with or without flocculation

• Organic substances separable by adsorption

• Substances separable by precipitation

• Substances that can be precipitated as insoluble iron salts or that can be chelated

• Substances separable by degassing or stripping

• Substances requiring a redox reaction

• Substances that can be concentrated by ion exchange or reverse osmosis

• Substances treatable by biological methods

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