All laboratory studies of the A/O process were performed with automatic-batch-fill-drawing (ABFD) apparatus with sequential operations of anaerobic mixing, aeration, and clarification in the same reactor. This concept has been used for full-scale operation and is an SBR. Part d in Figure 7.38.4 shows the sequence of operations in an SBR. An SBR can accomplish biological phosphorus removal alone or with nitrification (Manning and Irvine 1985). However, the application of SBRs is limited to low flow rates, typically 5 mgd or less.
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