Ermak 1990

Simple Line Source Model

Chock 1980


Harrison 1992

References for Table 5.8.5

Bjorklund, J.R., and J.F. Bowers. 1982. User's instructions for the SHORTZ and LONGZ computer programs. EPA 903/9-82-004a and b. Philadelphia: U.S. EPA, Region 3.

Brower, R. 1982. The Maryland power plant siting program (PPSP) air quality model user's guide. PPSP-MP-38. Baltimore: Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Chock, D.P. 1980. User's guide for the simple line-source model for vehicle exhaust dispersion near a road. Warren, Mich.: Environmental Science Department, General Motors Research Laboratories.

ENSR Consulting and Engineering. 1990. ERT visibility model: Version 4; Technical description and user's guide. M2020-003. Acton, Mass.: ENSR Consulting and Engineering.

Ermak, D.L. 1990. User's manual for SLAB: An atmospheric dispersion model for denser-than-air releases (UCRL-MA-105607). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Harrison, H. 1992. A user's guide to WYNDvalley 3.11, An Eulerian-grid air quality dispersion model with versatile boundaries, sources, and winds. Mercer Island, Wash.: WYNDsoft, Inc.

Malik, M.H., and B. Baldwin. 1980. Program documentation for multi-source (SCSTER) model. EN7408SS. Atlanta: Southern Company Services, Inc.

Mellor, G.L., and T. Yamada. 1974. A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 31:1791-1806.

Mellor, G.L., and T. Yamada. 1982. Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fludi problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 20:851-875.

PEI Associates. 1988. User's guide to SDM—A shoreline dispersion model. EPA-450/4-88-017. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. EPA.

Post, L. (ed.). 1994a. HGSYSTEM 3.0 technical reference manual. Chester, United Kingdom: Shell Research Limited, Thornton Research Centre.

Post, L. 1994b. HGSYSTEM 3.0 user's manual. Chester, United Kingdom: Shell Research Limited, Thornton Research Centre.

Rao, K.S., and H.F. Snodgrass. 1982. PAL-DS model: The PAL model including deposition and sedimentation. EPA-600/8-82-023. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development.

Scire, J.S., F.W. Lurmann, A. Bass, and S.R. Hanna. 1984. User's guide to the Mesopuff II model and related processor programs. EPA-600/8-84-013. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. EPA.

Transoft Group. 1994. User's guide to fluidyn-PANACHE, a three-dimensional deterministic simulation of pollutants dispersion model for complex terrain. Cary, N.C.: Transoft Group.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1989. User's guide for the DEGADIS 2.1—Dense gas dispersion model. EPA-450/4-89-019. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: U.S. EPA.

---. 1992a. User's manual for the plume visibility model, PLUVUEII (Revised). EPA-454/B-92-008. Research

---. 1992b. A modeling protocol for applying MESOPUFF II to long range transport problems. EPA-454/R-92-

---. 1993. Reactive Plume Model IV (RPM-IV) User's Guide. EPA-454/B-93-012. Research Triangle Park, N.C.:

Wang, I.T., and T.L. Waldron. 1980. User's guide to MTDDIS mesoscale transport, diffusion, and deposition model for industrial sources. EMSC6062.1UR(R2). Newbury Park, Calif.: Combustion Engineering.

Weil, J.C., and R.P. Brower. 1982. The Maryland PPSP dispersion model for tall stacks. PPSP-MP-36. Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

Yamada, T., and S. Bunker, 1988. Development of a nested grid, second moment turbulence closure model and application to the 1982 ASCOT Brush Creek data simulation. Journal of Applied Meteorology 27:562-578.

Zannetti, P., G. Carboni, and R. Lewis. 1985. AVACTA-II user's guide (Release 3). AV-0M-85/520. Monrovia, Calif.: AeroVironment, Inc.

FIG. 5.8.15 Terrain categories. (Reprinted, with permission, from Trinity Consultants, Inc., 1993, Air issues review, Issue no. 5, Dallas, Tex. [September].)

A minimum of one year of site-specific data is preferred for refined and complex terrain models. However, these data often either are not available or require a year to collect. In most cases (i.e., noncomplex terrain), the National Weather Service (NWS) observations from a nearby station can be substituted in refined modeling applications. Five years of meteorological data from a representative station provide the best, reasonable representation of climatology at the station.

For refined, simple terrain modeling, representative data from both a NWS surface and upper air station are the required minimum. The model user can modify the data for input using standard EPA meteorological preprocessor programs. For complex terrain modeling, site-specific data are critical to represent the conditions within the local topographic regime. In most cases, site-specific data are incomplete for all the required parameters and must usually be supplemented by NWS preprocessed data. To retain

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