Restoration or cleanup of a contaminated aquifer usually involves also addressing the contaminated soils at the va-dose zone. The residual contaminants in the vadose need to be treated or removed to prevent the continuous feed of contaminants to groundwater due to leaching, rainfall percolation, or groundwater table fluctuations. Several techniques are available to treat contaminants in the va-dose zone. These techniques include excavation and removal, physical treatments, biological treatments, thermal treatments, and stabilization treatments. Selecting the ap propriate method depends on the volume of soils to be handled, the type of soils and contaminants, the regulatory requirements, and costs.
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