Part A in Figure 7.17.4 shows the operational principles of solid-contact clarifiers. Incoming solids are brought in contact with a suspended sludge layer near the bottom. This layer acts as a blanket, and the incoming solids agglomerate and remain enmeshed within this blanket. The liquid rises upward while a distinct interface retains the solids below. These clarifiers have hydraulic performance and a reduced retention time for equivalent solids removal in horizontal flow clarifiers.
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