Sources of Contaminants

Contaminants in municipal wastewater are introduced as a result of water usage for domestic, commercial, or institutional purposes; water usage for product processing or cooling purposes within industries discharging liquid effluents into municipal sewerage systems; and infiltration/inflow and/or stormwater runoff. Table 7.2.1 shows examples of typical physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of municipal wastewater, along with potential sources. Table 7.2.2 summarizes selected sources and effects of industrial wastewater constituents.

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