The SDWA has specific provisions for public water systems and underground injections.
The SDWA requires states to enforce various drinking water standards established by the EPA. Specifically, the standards apply to public drinking water systems which provide piped water to the public for various uses including consumption. The act, however, limits the definition of public water systems to those systems which have a minimum of fifteen service connections or provide water supply to at least twenty-five individuals (SDWA §1401, 42 USC §300f).
The EPA promulgates national primary drinking water regulations for public water systems (SDWA §1412, 42 USC §300g-1). Under these regulations, the EPA must establish both primary and secondary drinking water standards. Notably, the primary standards are enforceable by the states, while the secondary standards are guidelines or goals to be achieved.
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