Surface impoundments are used to reduce waste volume through evaporation, while containing and concentrating residue within liners. Wastes are added directly to lined depressions in the ground known as pits, lagoons, treatment basins, or ponds. Long-term storage more accurately describes the process.
All surface impoundments are required to have at least one liner and be located on an impermeable base. New surface impoundments, replacements, or lateral expansions must include:
• A leachate collection system between the liners
• Groundwater monitoring as prescribed in Subpart F
Requirements include preventing liquid from escaping due to overfilling or runoff, and preventing erosion of dikes and dams. Liners must meet permit specifications for materials and thickness. During construction and installation, liners must be inspected for uniformity, damage, and imperfection.
The double-liner system for an impoundment facility is shown in Figure 11.12.1.
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