Choice of animal model Number of animals Route of administration Identity of the substance tested
Dose levels Age of treatment Conduct and duration of bioassays
Two species of rats, and both sexes of each; adequate controls; sufficient animals to resolve any carcinogenic effect; treatment and observation throughout animal lifetimes at range of doses likely to yield maximum cancer rates; detailed pathological examination; statistical analyses of results for significance
Genetic homogenity in test animals, especially between exposed and controls; selection of species with low natural-tumor incidence when testing that type of tumor Sufficient to allow for normal irrelevant attrition along the way and to demonstrate an effect beyond the level of cancer in the control group Were tumors found remote from the site of administration? No tumors observed should demonstrate that absorption occurred Exposure to chemicals frequently involves mixtures of impurities. What effect did this have on results? What is the significance of pure compound results? Also, consider the carrier used in administration Sufficient to evoke maximum tumor incidence Should be started early
Refer to NCI's "Guidelines for Carcinogen in Small Rodents"
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