Recycling, in-process or external Reuse or alternative use of the waste or chemical Change in sources from batch operations (for example, heel reuse, change in bottom design of vessel, vapor space controls, dead-space controls) Installation of isolation or containment systems Installation of rework systems for treating off-spec materials Change in practices for managing residuals (consolidation, recirculation, packaged amounts, reuse and purification) Use of practices or equipment leading to segregated material streams
Recovery or rework of waste streams generated by maintenance or inspection activities
Chemical or Process Changes
Treatment or conversion of the chemical Chemical substitution
Process change via change in thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, chemical concentration, or phase) or installation of phase-separation equipment (such as vapor suppression systems, vessels with reduced vapor spaces, and filtration or extraction equipment) Altering line or vessel length or diameter to make changes in the amount of product contained in lines or equipment that are purged
Installation of recirculation systems for process, water, gas inerting, or discharge streams as a substitute for single-pass streams
Change in frequency of operation, cleaning, release, or use Change in sequence of batch operations
Source: W.W. Doerr, 1993, Plan for the future with pollution prevention, Chem. Eng. Progress (January).
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