Table 731 Summary Of The Origin And Characteristics Of Selected Industrial Wastewater

Industries Producing Wastes

Origin of Major Wastes

Major Characteristics

Apparel

Textiles

Leather goods

Laundry trades

Dry cleaning

Food and Drugs

Canned goods

Dairy products

Brewed and distilled beverages

Meat and poultry products

Beet sugar

Pharmaceutical products Yeast Pickles

Coffee Fish

Rice

Soft drinks

Bakeries

Materials

Pulp and paper

Photographic products Steel

Metal-plated products Iron-foundry products Oil fields and refineries

Cooking of fibers and desizing of fabric

Unhairing, soaking, deliming, and bating of hides

Washing of fabrics

Solvent cleaning of clothes

Trimming, culling, juicing, and blanching of fruits and vegetables Dilutions of whole milk, separated milk, buttermilk, and whey

Steeping and pressing of grain; residue from distillation of alcohol; and condensate from stillage evaporation Stockyards; slaughtering of animals; rendering of bones and fats; residues in condensates; grease and wash water; and picking of chickens Transfer, screening, and juicing waters; drainings from lime sludge; condensates after evaporator; and juice and extracted sugar Mycelium, spent filtrate, and wash waters Residue from yeast filtration Lime water; brine, alum and turmeric, syrup, seeds, and pieces of cucumber Pulping and fermenting of coffee beans Rejects from centrifuge; pressed fish, and evaporator and other wash water wastes Soaking, cooking, and washing of rice

Bottle washing; floor and equipment cleaning; and syrup storage tank drains Washing and greasing of pans and floor washing

Cooking, refining, washing of fibers, and screening of paper pulp

Spent solutions of developer and fixer Coking of coal, washing of blast-furnace flue gases, and pickling of steel Stripping of oxides and cleaning and plating of metals Wasting of used sand by hydraulic discharge Drilling muds, salt, oil, and some natural gas; acid sludges; and miscellaneous oils from refining

Highly alkaline, colored, high BOD and temperature, and high SS High total solids, hardness, salt, sulfides, chromium, pH, precipitated lime, and BOD High turbidity, alkalinity, and organic solids Condensed, toxic, and organic vapors

High in SS, colloidal, and dissolved organic matter High in dissolved organic matter, mainly protein, fat, and lactose High in dissolved organic solids containing nitrogen and fermented starches or their products High in dissolved and suspended organic matter, blood, other proteins, and fats

High in dissolved and suspended organic matter containing sugar and protein

High in suspended and dissolved organic matter, including vitamins

High in solids (mainly organic) and BOD

Variable pH, high SS, color, and organic matter

High BOD and SS

Very high BOD, total organic solids, and odor

High BOD, total and suspended solids (mainly starch) High pH, suspended solids, and BOD

High BOD, grease, floor washing, sugars, flour, and detergents

High or low pH, color, high suspended, colloidal, and dissolved solids, and inorganic fillers Alkaline containing various organic and inorganic reducing agents Low pH, acids, cyanogen, phenol, ore, coke, limestone, alkali, oils, mill scale, and fine SS Acid, metals, toxic, low volume, and mainly mineral matter High SS, mainly sand;

and some clay and coal High dissolved salts from field and high BOD, odor, phenol, and sulfur compounds from refinery

Continued on next page

Industries Producing Wastes

Origin of Major Wastes

Major Characteristics

Petrochemicals

Cement

Chemicals

Acids

Detergents Cornstarch

Explosives

Pesticides

Phosphate and phosphorus

Plastic and resins

Fertilizer

Toxic chemicals

Mortuary

Hospital and Research Laboratories Chloralkali wastes Organic chemicals

Energy

Steam power

Scrubber power plant wastes Coal processing

Contaminated water from chemical production and transportation of second generation oil compounds Fine and finish grinding of cement, dust leaching collection, and dust control

Dilute wash waters and many varied dilute acids Washing and purifying soaps and detergents Evaporator condensate or bottoms when not reused or recovered, syrup from final washes, and wastes from bottling-up process Washing trinitrotoluene (TNT) and guncotton for purification and washing and pickling of cartridges Washing and purification products such as 2,4-D and dichlorodiphenyl trich-loroethane (DDT) Washing, screening, floating rock, and condenser bleedoff from phosphate reduction plant Unit operations from polymer preparation and use and spills and equipment washdowns Chemical reactions of basic elements and spills, cooling waters, washing of products, and boiler blowdowns Leaks, accidental spills, and refining of chemicals

Body fluids, washwaters, and spills

Washing, sterilizing of facilities, used solutions, and spills

Electrolytic cells and making chlorine and caustic soda Various chemical productive processes

Cooling water, boiler blow-down, and coal drainage Scrubbing of gaseous combustion products by liquid water Cleaning and classification of coal and leaching of sulfur strata with water

High COD, TDS, metals, COD/BOD ratio, and cpds. inhibitory to biologic action Heated cooling water, SS, and some inorganic salts

Low pH and low organic content

High in BOD and saponified soaps

High BOD and dissolved organic matter; mainly starch and related material

TNT, colored, acid, odorous, and containing organic acids and alcohol from powder and cotton, metals, acid, oils, and soaps High organic matter, benzenering structure, toxic to bacteria and fish, and acid

Clays, slimes and tall oils, low pH, high SS, phosphorus, silica, and fluoride Acids, caustic, and dissolved organic matter such as phenols and formaldehyde Sulfuric, phosphorous, and nitric acids; mineral elements, P, S, N, K, Al, NH3, and NO3; Fl; and some SS Various toxic dissolved elements and compounds such as Hg and polychlorinated biphenyls (PcBs) Blood salt, formaldehydes, high BOD, and infectious diseases Bacteria and various chemicals and radioactive materials

Mercury and dissolved metals

Varied types of organic chemicals

Hot, high volume, and high inorganic and dissolved solids Particulates, SO2, impure absorbents or NH3 and NaOH High SS (mainly coal), low pH, high H2SO, and FeSO4

Source: N.L. Nemerow and A. Dasgupta, 1991, Industrial and hazardous waste treatment (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold).

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