Type of sludge
Amendments and bulking agents
Volatile solids Air requirements
Moisture content pH
Mixing and turning
Both untreated and digested sludge can be composted successfully. Untreated sludge has a greater potential for odors, particularly for windrow systems. Untreated sludge has more energy available, degrades more readily, and has a higher oxygen demand.
Amendment and bulking agent characteristics, such as moisture content, particle size, and available carbon, affect the process and quality of the product. Bulking agents should be readily available. Wood chips, sawdust, recycled compost, and straw can be used.
The initial C:N ratio should be in the range of 25:1 to 35:1 by weight. Checking the carbon ensures that it is easily biodegradable.
The volatile solids of the composting mix should be greater than 50%.
Air with at least 50% oxygen remaining should reach all parts of the composting material for optimum results, especially in mechanical systems.
The moisture content of the composting mixture should be not greater than 60% for static pile and windrow composting and not greater than 65% for in-vessel composting.
The pH of the composting mixture should generally be in the range of 6 to 9.
The optimum temperature for biological stabilization is between 45 and 55°C. For best results, the temperature should be maintained between 50 and 55°C for the first few days and between 55 and 60°C for the remainder of the composting period. If the temperature increases beyond 60°C for a significant period of time, the biological activity is reduced.
Mixing or turning the material being composted on a regular schedule or as required prevents drying, caking, and air channeling. The frequency of mixing or turning depends on the type of composting operation.
Heavy metals and trace organics in the sludge and finished compost should be monitored so that the concentrations do not exceed the applicable regulations for end use of the product.
Factors in selecting a site include the available area, access, proximity to the treatment plant and other land uses, climatic conditions, and availability of a buffer zone.
Numerous references provide additional information on the design of composting systems. In particular, Rynk (1992), Haug (1993), and U.S. EPA (1985) provide information for general design, and U.S. EPA (1989) provides information for the in-vessel system.
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