Technology-based laws, such as parts of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act, impose pollution controls based on the best economically available or practical technology. Such laws tacitly assume that benefits accrue from the use of the medium (water or air) into which toxic or hazardous substances are discharged, and that complete elimination of discharge of some human and industrial wastes into such media currently is not feasible. The basis for imposing these controls is to reduce human exposure, which indirectly benefits health and environment. The goal is to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health and safety.
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