Thermal Combustion And Incineration

Thermal combustion and incineration is the principal approach used for VOCs (usually expressed in concentration terms) but is equally applicable to liquids and solids with sufficient heat content. This technique is different from catalytic destruction, which is discussed in Section 5.20. From a global mass balance and energy balance point of view, the design and implementation of a thermal incinerator is straightforward. Thermal efficiencies can be estimated closely with CO2 and H2O as the principal products. For dilute streams, achieving the required temperature may require auxiliary fuel.

In the area of PIC-formation, global approaches become unworkable. Environmental engineers may have to use detailed measurement techniques to verify emission types and levels not only from the combustion process but also for the pollution control equipment.

Thermal destruction is simplest when (at least theoretically) CO 2 and H2O are the expected products. The process becomes more complicated when hetero atoms (i.e., N, S, and Cl) or inorganics are involved, especially if corrosive products (i.e., HCl and SO2) are formed. The dividing line between gaseous and liquid wastes is not always sharp because liquid wastes can contain many species of high-vapor pressure and gaseous wastes can carry liquid residues in droplet form.

The main variables controlling the efficiency of a combustion process are temperature, time, and turbulence; the three Ts of combustion. At a constant combustion chamber temperature, the DRE, defined in terms of the following equation:

VOCin

VOCo

VOCin

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