such as Moyno) pumps are commonly used. The heat exchanger has removable end caps and water-to-sludge circuitry to eliminate tube fouling and maintenance. The process removes grit from the influent sludge to minimize tube plugging and protect pumps, valves, and pipes from erosion.
Sludge flows both to and from the reactor through the heat exchanger inner tube. The exchanger is a concentric tube-in-tube design. A closed water circuit system with pressure tank and pump transfers heat from the reactor effluent to the incoming feed sludge. Water flows through the tube jacket, and the heat exchanger efficiency in this design is above 80%.
The reactor vessel is designed in accordance with the ASME unfired pressure vessel code requirements. Radiation or probe-type level sensors control the reactor sludge level. The process cools and liquifies gases released from the reactor to avoid odor formation. Also, the enclosed settling tank prevents odors from leaving the tank, and a small afterburner destroys odoriferous vapors.
The settling tank is a conventional, picket-type thickener where solids and liquids separate and readily settle to produce a sludge with 8 to 14% solids content. The thickened sludge from the thickener is pumped to the dewa-tering device.
Separate sludge mixing tanks should be provided when treated sludge is stored for extended periods because supersettling to a 40% solids content can occur, creating pumping problems. Vacuum filters, centrifuges, filter presses, and horizontal vacuum extractors have all been successfully applied to dewater and decanted sludge.
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