The most commonly used treatment in pump-and-treat technologies is physical treatment. Physical treatment includes density separation, filtration, adsorption, air stripping, and reverse osmosis. Each of these processes can be used individually or in conjunction with others (e.g., treatment trains) as shown in Figure 9.17.9. In addition, most treatment systems include equalization and spill control to protect the treatment works from shock pollutants and hydraulic loadings. The selection of the process is usually based on the type of contaminant, influent concentration, effluent requirements, and cost.
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