Moisture and ash, as previously defined for proximate composition, are also elements of ultimate composition. In standard ultimate analysis, the combustible fraction is divided among carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Ultimate analysis of solid waste should also include chlorine. The results are more useful if sulfur is broken down into organic sulfur, sulfide, and sulfate; and chlorine is broken down into organic (insoluble) and inorganic (soluble) chlorine (Niessen 1995).
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine are measured directly; calculating oxygen requires subtracting the sum of the other components (including moisture and ash) from 100%. Table 10.3.4 shows a representative ultimate composition for MSW. The dry-basis values shown in the table can be converted to as-received values with use of Equation 10.3(2).
The ultimate composition of MSW on a dry basis reflects the dominance of six types of materials in MSW: cellulose, lignins, fats, proteins, hydrocarbon polymers, and inorganic materials. Cellulose is approximately 42.5% carbon, 5.6% hydrogen, and 51.9% oxygen and accounts for the majority of the dry weight of MSW. The cellulose content of paper ranges from approximately 75% for low grades to approximately 90% for high-grade paper. Wood is roughly 50% cellulose, and cellulose is a major ingredient of yard waste, food waste, and disposable diapers. Cotton, the largest ingredient of the textile component of MSW, is approximately 98% cellulose (Masterton, Slowinski, and Stanitski 1981).
Despite the abundance of cellulose, MSW contains more carbon than oxygen due to the following factors:
• Most of the plastic fraction of MSW is composed of polyethylene, polystyrene, and polypropylene, which contain little oxygen.
• Synthetic fibers (textiles category) contain more carbon than oxygen, and rubber contains little oxygen.
• The lower grades of paper contain significant quantities of lignins, which contain more carbon than oxygen.
• Fats contain more carbon than oxygen.
The nitrogen in solid waste is primarily in organic form. The largest contributors of nitrogen to MSW are food waste (proteins), grass clippings (proteins), and textiles (wool, nylon, and acrylic). Chlorine occurs in both organic and inorganic forms. The largest contributor of organic chlorine is PVC or vinyl. Most of the PVC is in the other plastic and textiles components. The largest source of inorganic chlorine is sodium chloride (table salt). Sulfur is not abundant in any category of combustible MSW but is a major component of gypsum board. The sulfur in gypsum is largely noncombustible but not entirely so. In Table 10.3.4, gypsum board is included in the Inorganics/
Noncombustibles category, which is shown as 100% ash because of a lack of data on the ultimate composition.
The inorganic (noncombustible) waste categories contribute most of the ash in MSW. Additional ash is contributed by the inorganic components of combustible materials, including clay in glossy and high-grade paper, dirt in yard waste, bones and shells in food waste, asbestos in vinyl-asbestos floor coverings, fiberglass in reinforced plastic, and grit on roofing shingles.
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