Wastewater From Petroleum Refining

As an example of industrial wastewater discharges, this section presents brief information on the pollutant discharges from petroleum refineries. The total amount of water used in a petroleum refinery is estimated to be 770 gal per barrel of crude oil (Nemerow 1978). Approximately 80 to 90% of the water is used for cooling purposes only and is not contaminated except by leaks in the lines. Process wastewaters, comprising 10 to 20% of the total, can include free and emulsified oil from leaks, spills, tank draw-off, and other sources; waste caustic, caustic sludges, and alkaline waters; acid sludges and acid waters; emulsions incident to chemical treatment; condensate waters from distillate separators and tank draw-off; tank-bottom sludges; coke from equipment tubes, towers, and other locations; acid gases; waste catalyst and filtering clays; and special chemicals from by-product chemical manufacturing.

Both conventional and toxic pollutants are found in petroleum refinery wastewater. Conventional pollutants are those that have received historical attention, while toxic pollutants relate to parameters receiving increasing atten-

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