Water used for process operations (noncooling purposes) can become degraded as a result of introducting nutrients, suspended sediments, bacteria, oxygen-demanding matter, and toxic chemicals. The degree of pollutant (contaminant) loading is a function of the type of industry, specific unit processes, and the extent of wastewater minimization practices employed. Table 7.3.1 summarizes the origin of contaminant introductions in various industries and lists some key contaminant characteristics.
Several books summarize the characteristics of waste-water from various industries; examples include Nemerow (1978) and Nemerow and Dasgupta (1991). Nemerow and Dasgupta (1991) provide information on the types and quantities of water pollutants from major private sector categories such as the apparel, food, materials, chemical, and energy industries.
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