Management of Grassland Field Margins

One of the principle constraints to successful establishment and persistence of botanical diversity within field margins is nutrient enrichment due fertiliser and slurry misplacement, or due to dunging of grazing animals (Sheridan, 2005). This can lead to the perception held by some farmers and policy makers that these may act as sources of weeds and pests. However, difficulties associated with weed encroachment into the main sward within pastoral systems usually only arise following a...

Sheridan G Purvis and G ODonovan

1 School of Biology and Environmental Science Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland 2 Broadview Ecological Consultants, Stroud Gloucestershire, GL6 8PU, UK It is often perceived that the management practices associated with grass based farming systems are less damaging to biodiversity than are those associated with arable farming systems. Therefore, much scientific attention has been dedicated to the rejuvenation and conservation of field...

Ecological and Physiological Background

Fire and grazing by large ungulates are considered integral to the persistence of grassland ecosystems and species diversity, and their importance for rejuvenating landscapes will only become more important as the costs of fossil fuels rise (Provenza 2008). Natural rangeland communities are constantly responding to the effects of the most recent disturbance, in most cases never achieving a steady-state or climax stage. The absence of these disturbances in grassland ecosystems results in a...

The Real Impact of Continuous Grazing

Continuous grazing in large paddocks is usually associated with patch grazing and resource deterioration in localized areas. Grazing under enclosed conditions does not occur uniformly over time or over a landscape (Willms et al.1988 O'Connor 1992 Ash and Stafford-Smith, 1996 Bailey et al. 1996 Gerrish 2004 Witten et al. 2005). Livestock grazing large paddocks exhibit spatial patterns of repetitive use, heavily using preferred patches and avoiding or lightly using others. The process of...

References

Biodiversity and Pest Management in Agroecosystems. Haworth Press, USA. Anderson, A., Helden, A., Purvis, G., Kirwan, L. and Sheridan, H. (2005). Assessing indicators of biodiversity in agricultural grasslands - some preliminary results from monitoring grassland arthropods and experimental conservation field margins. Tearmann Irish Journal of Agri-Environmental Research, 4, 51-66. Andrews, J. and Rebane, M. (1994). Farming and Wildlife. The Royal Society for the Protection...

Limitations of Research on Multi Paddock Grazing

The results of much experimental research are inconsistent with the demonstrated effectiveness on commercial properties in many countries of planned multi-paddock grazing management. The potential for significantly higher production under planned multi-paddock grazing management, consistent with producer experience, can be justified with published research data, using scientific arguments focusing on the temporal and spatial aspects of grazing management and their physiological effects on plant...

Modern Grasslands Distribution and Floristic Features

Grassland landscapes are widely distributed in the Southern Kuril Islands. The most broadly dispersed grassland communities on the large islands are developed in areas with strong winds, in lowland isthmuses and at island extremes. Grasslands cover large areas in the north of Iturup Island, in the regions of Vetrovoi Isthmus and Medvezhii Peninsula where woody vegetation is stunted and is represented mostly as broken, narrow-leafed forests and larch forests, and where Pinus pumila thickets are...

The Value of Metallophytes in Phytoremediation Lessons Learned from a Case Study

Successful ecosystem restoration requires a fundamental understanding of the ecological characteristics of the component species, together with the knowledge of how they assemble, interact and function as communities Pywell and al. 2003 . Succession is one of the most studied processes in ecology, and succession theory provides strong predictability. As such, it can be regarded as the sequential or directional change in species number and composition, and in the community structure, including...

Xinping Zhou Jiakuan Yang and Bo Xiao

Solar Chimney

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology HUST , 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074, P.R. China Solar chimney power generating technology is a solar thermal technology on a large scale which combines three parts a collector, a high chimney reinforced concrete chimney or floating chimney that can stretch up to several thousand meters , and turbines installed at the chimney base. The best locations of these systems are vast desert regions with...

A Case Study of Cattle Overwintering Area and the Significance in n2o Emissions

Pastures are specific grassland ecosystems used for animal grazing. In the Czech Republic and other Central European regions they are usually located in mountainous and other marginal areas, where environmental and soil conditions are less favourable for field crops, while more precipitation supports growth of grass. Cattle typically graze during the growing season, while, during winter, the animals are located near the animal house on a relatively small plot called an overwintering area. In...