Conclusion

Grazed grasslands as a part of livestock production systems produce large quantities of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide. In addition to other significant sources (e.g. manure heaps and liquid manure tanks), several emission hot spots can be distinguished in the pastures. These include camping areas, drinking sites, feedlots, shade areas, footpaths and dung and urine patches (where combine effects of nutrients in urine, dung and compaction occur resulting in creating conditions for high nitrification and denitrification rates and, consequently, high N2O fluxes). In this chapter we proposed overwintering areas, that is pasture sites where cattle (and/or other livestock) is located in high stock densities for relatively long periods during winter season as another type of hot spots for N2O emissions. Due to overgrazing effect, damage of vegetation and high stock density accompanied with high N-inputs in excrements and lower utilization of deposited N by plants in a cold period, cattle overwintering areas appear to have a large potential for accelerated microbial N transformations and thus gaseous losses from the system, including nitrogen gas fluxes.

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