Survive Global Water Shortages

Survive Water Crisis

Survive Water Crisis is an excellent survival guide that helps individuals develop an actionable plan for what to do in the event of a water emergency. Most of us know that without clean water to drink we will die within a few short days, but how many of us are prepared in the event that a tragedy occurs that affects the water supply? Survive Water Crisis teaches users how to turn polluted water into pure water. Users can learn how to purify water at home and they will not have to drink dirty water during a water crisis. Hence, users will know what to do to enjoy clean drinking water and take full control of their water supply. Thanks to this book, users and their families will not be thirsty during any water crisis. Besides, users will discover how to remain calm and confident enough to handle water crises. Whenever a water crisis arises, users will unnecessarily dread dehydration. Last but not least, this book introduces common water disasters and a report on water supply. The main point driven home in the guide is that, in order to survive, you must develop an action oriented mindset. Most people, when faced with an emergency, will have a tendency to panic and behave irrationally during the critical period following the disaster, when every minute counts. Without a plan, you will likely find yourself running around like a chicken with its head cut off. If you have a contingency in place for this type of disaster, you wont have to figure out what to doyou will be able to just fall back on your plan and get things done. Continue reading...

Survive Water Crisis Overview

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Measuring and Modeling the Sustainability of Global Water Resources

Conventional water stress assessment is not sufficient for measuring the sustainability of world water resources. Instead, a set of projections performed by an integrated water resources model is necessary. Such a model must represent temporally varying natural and anthropogenic water cycles, along with the representation of the role of green water. Measurement of sustainability does not necessarily depend on water stress, i.e., the ratio between water withdrawal and water availability rather, it should depend on the services and impacts achieved. A prototype of such an integrated water resources model is available, although further development is necessary. For full model operation, data on water availability and withdrawal are indispensable. However, the data, particularly those related to human activities (e.g., water withdrawal, ground water depletion, and infrastructure development) are still sparse and uncertain, in particular for regional assessments. To complicate matters, the...

Strategies for Coping with Drought

All desert life forms, animals, plants, and microorganisms alike, employ one or more of three basic strategies to cope with the dearth of water (1) drought evasion, a strategy of avoiding water stress temporarily in inactive states (2) drought endurance, a suit of adaptations that reduce actual stress and enable being active during drought and (3) drought resistance, a suit of adaptations evolved to avoid water stress altogether. Note that water and heat stresses are coupled, thus many of the adaptations mentioned below can be understood as strategies to cope with both. 1. Drought-evading organisms 'choose' to pass exceedingly dry periods in dormant stages. Predominant examples are short-lived (ephemeral) plants that survive the dry season or longer periods of drought in the dormant seed stage. Such annual plants are indeed very common in many deserts of the world and compose a large portion of the plant diversity in many areas (up to 80 of species richness). An equivalent for animals...

Strategies to Cope with Unpredictable Water Resources

Most perennial plants suppress flowering (aridopassive shrubs) or sprouting altogether (e.g., geophytes) in drought years. This is analogous to many desert animals that shift sexual maturity and mating to synchronize with favorable conditions. Similar to plants, sterility is typical for extreme drought years and dispersal and migration (nomadism) are triggered by precipitation regimes. There is some indication that insects and desert shrubs can shift their sex expression with changing rainfall regimes. Especially, monoecious shrubs, plants that have male and female reproductive units on the same individual, can shift their sex ratio with water availability. The male function requires fewer resources from the plant ('cheaper sex'), and is typically the predominant sex in dry years. Many desert shrubs tend to break apart into separate shoot sections over time (axial disintegration). This so-called 'clonal splitting' is very common for desert shrubs worldwide and has been explained as a...

Water Deficiency Drought

Poikilohydric lichens are world champions in tolerating drought stress, which usually is accompanied by heat or cold and high light intensities. Despite the extremely harsh habitat, every square millimetre of this gneiss boulder in the Austrian Alps is occupied by more or less colourful crustose lichens. The community is dominated by the yellowish green Rhizocarpon cf. geographicum. Photograph E. Beck. Zhu J-K (2002) Salt and Drought Stress Signal Transduction in Plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53 247-273

Impact On Water Resources

The main consequences of climatic changes to inland waters include the following (da Cunha 1988) (a) changes in the global amount of water resources and in the spatial and temporal distribution of these resources (b) changes in soil moisture (c) changes in extreme phenomena related to water resources, i.e., floods and droughts (d) changes in water quality (e) changes in sedimentation processes and (f) changes in water demand. The simplest way to view the implications of global climate change on water resources is to consider the relationship between increasing atmospheric CO2 and the hy-drologic cycle this relationship is shown in Figure 5.5.1. The following comments relate to the implications of Figure 5.5.1 (Waggoner and Revelle 1990) 2. To be most usable for water resource considerations, frequency distributions of precipitation (and flood and drought projections) are needed. Models to develop such information are in their infancy.

Effects Of Droughts On Migrant Numbers

In much of Africa north of the equator, as emphasised above, rainfall during the northern summer largely determines the state of the vegetation and the extent of wetlands in the following dry season. It thus influences the food supplies of many birds, whether they consume plant or animal matter. But rainfall also varies greatly from year to year, and over much of the region since the late 1960s has in most years been well below former levels, owing to a failure of the rainbelts to extend so far to the north. Hence, drought conditions have been most severe along the northern edge of the Sahel zone, lying immediately south of the Sahara Desert, and have diminished southwards across the savannah zones towards the equator. In the Sahel zone, rainfall deficits were particularly marked in 1968, 1973, and even more so in 1983 and 1984, and again in 1990. It was in 1969 (after the 1968 drought) that the importance of conditions in African wintering areas was first impressed upon European...

Conclusions Reverting To A Premodern Water Supply System

Of all the Emergency Bills that were implemented in 1990, only the increase in water prices had a short-term impact, resulting in a 20 percent cut in water consumption. The immediate results of the other three emergency measures were negligible only half of the proposed drilling works were eventually carried out, as these were highly contested by local residents the water transportation project led to great political controversy and to a political scandal before it was finally abandoned and the Evinos Dam project only became fully operational in 2001, long after the drought period was over. Hence, the only immediate positive outcome from the proposed projects was a 20 percent saving in water consumption and an extra yield of a meagre 100,000-200,000 m3 per day from the drilling works. These quantities fell far short of meeting the originally estimated extra need of almost 1,000,000 m3 per day, suggesting a discursive, rather than a real imminent threat of water scarcity during the...

Water Quality as a Component of a Sustainable Water Supply

Pristine water resources for drinking water and other uses (e.g., land irrigation) are becoming increasingly scarce due to an ever-growing world population. To utilize available resources efficiently and rationally, water quality is as important as water quantity. To supply the world with sufficient water of a sufficient quality, a three-way approach is needed. First, water resources must be protected optimal agricultural and industrial practices (e.g., use of biodegradable chemicals) must be followed to avoid contaminating rivers and streams. Second, water treatment methods must be found to accommodate the safe reuse of wastewater and permit usage of brackish water and seawater. Third, a balance between groundwater usage and replenishment must be achieved. Future innovations are needed to achieve these goals. This chapter focuses on issues related to water quality.

Water Resources of the World

The global water resources constitute approximately 1.385 billion km3 (Figure 1). This makes up 0.17 of Earth's volume. About 97.5 of global water resources are saline and only 2.5 are fresh. Saltwater stored in oceans is the prevailing portion (96.5 ) of Earth's water resources (1.338 billion km ). The average ocean's depth is 3794 m and the mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35 x 101 t (about less than a quarter of a permille of the total Earth's mass). The second largest water store on Earth - glaciers and permanent snow cover - is very much smaller than the oceans, containing 24.4 million km3 of water (c. 1.72 of global water resources), that is over 50 times less than the ocean water. However, this solid water store (whose prevailing part is ice and permanent snow cover in the Antarctic, the Arctic, and mountainous regions) contains freshwater, making up most (about 69 ) of the total freshwater resources. The third largest global water store is groundwater, containing 23.4...

Water Supply Water Environment

Whether a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem is planned, the supply and internal transfer of water is critical. Air- and water-handling systems need to be carefully designed to prevent water contamination. Since water sequestration and loss is more or less inevitable, the water quality of both initial water and later top-ups must be carefully controlled. Rarely would tap water be acceptable. Water is the universal solvent, whether in liquid or gaseous form, and often 'sequesters' gases. Most ecosystems in greenhouses require the dedicated monitoring and control of atmospheric and water quality. Managed aquatic plant systems, such as algal turf scrubbers (ATSs), have been successfully used to manage water quality of adjacent ecosystems interaction, as we describe in some of the examples. Such systems can also control atmospheric quality (Figure 2).

Adaptations to Water Shortages

Most wetland plants either do not have adaptations to water stress or show only a weak expression of them. Some wetland plants that grow where dry periods are predictable, or in cold climates, exhibit adaptations to water shortages. For example, southeastern U.S. cypress swamps often experience dry periods in the spring and summer. In Florida, cypress domes have a perched water table caused by underlying hardpans and clay layers. Clay layers inhibit root penetration to groundwater sources so the plants' water supply is limited to the water stored within the dome basin. Cypress trees exhibit a number of water conservation traits. In Florida, the transpiration ratio (the ratio of the amount of water lost through transpiration to the amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis during the photoperiod) of Taxodium distichum was measured as 156 to 220 g water lost g-1 organic matter produced. When compared to Florida marshes (transpiration ratio 414 to 1820), corn (400), grain crops...

Drought in Dry Tropical Forests

From wet to dry species in the tropics face increasing problems of water availability (Holbrook and Franco 2005). The dominating ecophysiological stress parameters in dry tropical forests are strong seasonal drought (H2O) and high irradiance (hv, see Chapter 4 for a detailed discussion) with strong interactions between them and with other environmental parameters, i.e.

Ecophysiological Responses to Drought

5.1 Drought in Moist Tropical Forests Seasonality of rainfall (Sect. 3.1) can lead to the formation of tree rings in wet tropical forests (Worbes 1999 D nisch et al. 2003). Seasonal drought may occur regularly in these moist forests and not only in dry tropical forests. In Central and South America it can be enforced by southern oscillation or El Ni o events (Engelbrecht et al. 2002). After extreme dry periods tropical rain forests may even be threatened by fire (van Nieuwstadt and Sheil 2005, Sect. 10.3). Along the 65 km across the isthmus of Panam , where B. Engelbrecht and colleagues have studied tree seedling performance in relation to drought stress in the moist forests there is a gradient of forest formation due to a moisture gradient from the drier Pacific to the wetter Atlantic side (Fig. 5.1A). The number of days when no precipitation reaches the forest floor (days with lower than 3 mm rain) range from 20 to more than 90 in the moist forests across the isthmus (Fig. 5.1B)....

Chlorination byproduct potential in components of the nyc municipal water supply

Gained by considering results of laboratory chlorination experiments using raw water from two of those components (Bopp et al., 1990). Total trihalomethane (TTHMs) concentrations (the most abundant trihalomethane treatment byproduct is chloroform), following chlorination of raw water derived from Rondout Reservoir, increased from 0 to 33 parts per billion (ppb) in 100 hours (Fig. 7.7). Parallel experiments, using unfiltered and filtered Hudson River water from Chelsea, at the point of withdrawal for the NYC system, resulted in TTHM concentrations of 191 and 165 ppb, respectively, after 100 hours, a factor of about five to six times greater (Fig. 7.7). Thus if Rondout water and Hudson River water were blended in proportions of 90 percent and 10 percent, the resultant TTHM concentration in laboratory experiments would be about 40 percent higher than if the raw water supply were 100 percent Rondout water. Although these simple experiments should not be considered as accurate simulations...

General features of newyork city municipal water supply

Four distinct components of the NYC water supply discussed here (all derived from surface waters) include Delaware, Catskill, Croton, and Hudson (used only during drought emergencies). Each of these has features that significantly affect current management practices and water quality. Of the total base supply (derived from an area of about 5.1 x 103 km2), upper Delaware River tributaries provide almost half of the watershed area (47 percent). This network, in the western Catskill region, was the most recently constructed and has generally high raw water quality. However, the West Branch, East Branch, and Neversink are tributaries of the Delaware River (Table 7.4) resulting in releases from NYC storage reservoirs being subject to regulations by an independent commission which must balance other municipal supply (primarily Philadelphia) and environmental needs with those of NYC. During an extended drought, when NYC has greatest need for diversion of water from Delaware tributaries,...

Drought

Drought strongly influences mortality in woodland and forest communities, while young trees often die quite soon after planting if not watered regularly in dry periods. Losses caused by this in plantings associated with the entrance to the English side of the Channel Tunnel were considerable (D.R. Helliwell, pers. comm.). The influence of drought is also often exerted in the most unlikely places, as in the everwet (i.e. normally always very wet) rain forest of the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo reported by Potts (2003). Here the rainfall between late January and mid-April 1998 fell to less than a fifth of that normally expected. Forest-wide tree mortality rates during the drought period rose to 7.63 per year as compared with 2.40 per year in the period before the drought. Mortality oflarge rare trees was less than that of large common trees during the drought. This suggests that there may be a compensatory mechanism maintaining the persistence of rare species.

Drought Duration

Another important hydrological variable related to temporal variability in water levels is drought or drydown duration (length of time an area is dry). We were able to vary drought duration in the model, and found significant effects on population growth rate. This response reflects the direct effect of drought duration on survival and reproduction. During droughts, snail availability is dramatically reduced (implicitly taken into account in the model), thus increasing the probability of kites dying from starvation. The longer the drought conditions persist, the greater the reduction in kites. The same reasoning applies to kite reproduction. During drought, reproduction is dramatically reduced, and the longer the drought the less opportunity to reproduce.

Drought Frequencies

Increased frequency of droughts, which are known to be directly detrimental to kites when they occur at a sufficiently high frequency (Beissinger, 1995 Mooij et al., 2002). Thus, simple hydrological indicators based on a single factor, such as annual mean water levels (see, for example, the drought indicator developed by Bennetts and Kitchens, 1997) should be interpreted with caution. Indeed, such indicators may fail to identify drought events within a year when the amplitude of water level variation within a year is high relative to the yearly mean water level. Although scenarios with large amplitudes resulted in rapid decreases in intrinsic population growth rates, scenarios with substantially reduced variation (or amplitude) in water levels also led to even greater negative population growth rates over the long term, due to longer-term degradation of the habitat caused by prolonged hydroperiod and the near absence of dry downs (Kitchens et al., 2002 Mooij et al., 2002). Kitchens et...

Water Resources

Rainfall replenishes the water found in streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans and it is a vital part of the hydrologic cycle. When surface water is not managed effectively, water shortages and pollution result, both of which threaten humans and the aquatic biota that depend on freshwater. Rapid population growth and associated increased total water consumption combine to rapidly deplete water resources. The present and future availability of adequate supplies of freshwater for human and agricultural needs is already critical in many world regions. This is especially critical in the Middle East and parts of North Africa where low rainfall is endemic.

Principal Types of Adjustments Plant Form Function and Lifecycle Acclimation

Perhaps the most extreme mechanism for dealing with stress is to enter a state of dormancy until the stress is relieved. The multitude of different adaptations exhibited within the plant kingdom include seeds spores that can desiccate fully (a state equally effective for persisting through a prolonged drought or subfreezing winter temperatures), whole plants that can desiccate fully, plants that allow their more sensitive portions to senesce (leaves, twigs, branches, shoots, or roots), or evergreen plants that downregulate photosynthesis and remain inactive until conditions and resources permit a resumption of metabolic activity. In fact, the persistence of desiccation-tolerant seeds, sometimes for decades, is the single adaptation that permits plant life to exist in the most arid habitats on Earth.

Tools for Technology Transfer and Decision Support

Agricultural models have been commonly used to extend the results of experimental research to other soil types, climates, and management conditions outside the experimental design. For example, they have been used for extrapolating limited duration experimental results to variability in climatic conditions across longer periods of time (e.g., 25-50 years), and to extreme climatic conditions (e.g., droughts or flooding) not encountered during the study period. Agricultural models have proven to be useful tools for in-depth analysis of problems in management, environmental quality, global climate change, and other ecological issues, and can thus be a basis for policy or regulatory use. Agricultural models also function as decision aids in choosing best management practices for long-term sustainable production, as well as helping to guide site-specific management on agricultural landscapes and within-season dynamic management in response to spatially variable soil moisture and weather...

Specific Provisions

The SDWA requires states to enforce various drinking water standards established by the EPA. Specifically, the standards apply to public drinking water systems which provide piped water to the public for various uses including consumption. The act, however, limits the definition of public water systems to those systems which have a minimum of fifteen service connections or provide water supply to at least twenty-five individuals (SDWA 1401 4 , 42 USC 300f 4 ).

Isotopes And Other Markers

Although useful in identifying the regional origins of migrants, and filling gaps in other information, the method of isotope analysis cannot provide anything near the geographical resolution that is possible with other approaches, such as ringing or radio-tracking. The levels of deuterium (6D), which follow patterns in rainfall, are perhaps the most useful in studies of migratory birds they give good latitudinal precision, but less good longitudinal precision (Hobson 2005). However, 615N and 613C values are of less value in this respect because drought conditions can enrich both, and natural regional variations in both are increasingly modified by human activities, such as fertilizer use and atmospheric pollution, reducing their value as geographical markers. Nevertheless, the method of isotope analysis provides better-than-nothing information for species with low recovery rates in the regions concerned, especially where analysis of several elements rather than one can give greater...

Techniques For Impact Prediction

A key technical element in the EIA process is the prediction of impacts (effects) for both the without-project and with-project conditions. Numerous technical approaches can be used. As an example, the principles and guidelines of the Water Resources Council (1983) delineate several approaches which can be used in the EIA process for water resources projects. These approaches include

Alpine Forest Biogeography

Most of the ecological research focusing on the alpine forest has involved vegetation studies, although many animal species use this zone seasonally, especially later in summer when lower elevations have dried from the longer summer. This area is a prolonged green zone where food for herbivores, especially, is still in abundance compared to lower elevations where most annual plants have completed their life cycle, and the perennial species have undergone a seasonal senescence due to accumulating summer drought. Alpine forest is found on all continents except Antarctica, as well as several oceanic islands. The mountain regions of the Western Hemisphere form large, N S cordilleras that connect polar regions to the subtropics. For example, the Cascades, Rocky,

Environmental Change And Disturbance

Environmental change operates on a continuum of spatial and temporal scales. Although strict definitions of environmental change and disturbance have proved problematic, environmental change generally occurs over a longer term, whereas disturbances are short-term events (Walker and Willig 1999, P. White and Pickett 1985). Chronic changes in temperature or precipitation patterns, such as following the last glaciation, occur on a scale of 103-105 years and may be barely detectable on human time scales. Long-term changes may be difficult to distinguish from cycles operating over decades or centuries, leading to disagreements over whether measured changes represent a fluctuation or a long-term trend. Acute events, such as fires or storms, are more recognizable as disturbances that have dramatic effects on time scales of seconds to hours. However, the duration at which a severe drought, for example, is considered a climate change, rather than a disturbance, has not been determined. The...

Current Trends in Decision Making Tools

A recent trend in decision making in environmental studies is the use of computer software. For example, Torno et al. (1988) developed a training manual to evaluate the environmental impacts of large-scale water resources development projects. Enough information is provided to enable the knowledgeable user to evaluate any water body of interest. The training primarily uses a multiobjective, multicriteria decision analysis approach. An interactive computer program simplifies application of the method described in the training manual and serves as a valuable learning aid.

The life form spectra of communities

Plants grow by developing new shoots from the buds that lie at the apices (tips) of existing shoots and in the leaf axils. Within the buds, the meris-tematic cells are the most sensitive part of the whole shoot - the 'Achilles' heel' of plants. Raunkiaer argued that the ways in which these buds are protected in different plants are powerful indicators of the hazards in their environments and may be used to define the different plant forms (Figure 1.19). Thus, trees expose their buds high in the air, fully exposed to the wind, cold and drought Raunkiaer called them phanerophytes (Greek phanero, 'visible' phyte, 'plant'). By contrast, many perennial herbs form cushions or tussocks in which buds are borne above ground but are protected from drought and cold in the dense mass of old leaves and shoots (chamaephytes 'on the ground plants'). Buds are even better protected when they are formed at or in the soil surface (hemicryptophytes 'half hidden plants') or on buried dormant storage...

Tree biology and how it influences woodland ecology

The Monterey or radiata pine Pinus radiata is an impoverished and stunted tree in its natural range on a handful of sites on the coast of California, mostly notably, the Monterey Peninsula. It has been left marooned in less than favourable growing conditions as its range has been reduced by climate changes since the last ice age. Yet elsewhere it is capable of magnificent growth and has been extensively planted in many parts of the world including New Zealand and South America. In New Zealand it now accounts for some 90 of the exotic trees grown and develops so rapidly that it can be harvested at an age of 25 years, whereas even Douglas fir (whose timber may sell for roughly double the price) would normally have to grow for 45-60 years under the same conditions. It also has excellent form, wounds incurred when lower side branches are pruned heal rapidly, and it does not coppice so any unwanted trees die when felled. Its seeds are easy to collect and store and have a high germination...

Migration By Walking Or Swimming

While most birds migrate by flight, others migrate by walking or swimming. These include not only flightless birds, but also some birds which are able to fly, but in some circumstances opt to walk or swim, for at least part of their journey. For example, Prill (1931) described a pedestrian migration of American Coots Fulica americana in the Warner Valley of Oregon during May 1929. At least 10 000 individuals were seen walking northward over a period of four days. They did not swim or fly (unless alarmed), but followed the shore, 6-25 abreast. They may have been engaged in a moult migration, and some may not have flown because their flight feathers were loosened or already shed. In western North America, the Blue Grouse Dendragapus obscurus performs an altitudinal migration, moving several hundred metres up and down mountainsides between the breeding and non-breeding areas (Cade & Hoffman 1993). Although the bird can fly, the radio-tracking of individuals revealed that this journey...

Defining Assimilative Capacity

This criterion is the keystone of the definition. It reflects cultural values about the use of a particular waterbody. These values include the use of the waterbody as a water supply, recreational use, the support of important ecological resources, and other uses. The criteria derived in order to meet these uses form the basis for deriving numeric values that set the limit in the assimilative capacity definition.

Monitoring ecological response to pollution

If we are to determine the impacts of pollutants upon ecosystems and their recovery following remediation, it is absolutely essential that we have a robust method of monitoring. There have been significant advances in the methods of monitoring freshwater systems, details of which are provided in Jones et al. (Chapter 6) however, it is clear that there are several challenges to be met. The first of these is to define what is meant by the term 'reference condition'. It is a term used in many key pieces of legislation (including the WFD) to assess an ecological community in relation to the community that is expected to be present based on 'reference conditions'. However, due to the extent of human impact both on a temporal and spatial scale it is difficult to find a 'real' example of this, or to model one. It is the general consensus that, when tackling pollution within the environment, the aim is not to attain a reference condition that reflects pre-industrial conditions (Chapter 6) but...

Distributions and extreme conditions

Scale in the climatic conditions of its wild ancestors, and it is well known that crop failures are often caused by extreme events, especially frosts and drought. For instance, the climatic limit to the geographic range for the production of coffee (Coffea arabica and C. robusta) is defined by the 13 C isotherm for the coldest month of the year. Much of the world's crop is produced in the highland microclimates of the Sao Paulo and Paran districts of

Doing Urban Political Ecology

Chapters 10, 11, and 12 enter the political ecological metabolism of the city through the lens of water. Maria Kaika's engaging account of the politics of drought and scarcity in Athens evokes the mechanisms through which the urbanization of nature becomes an integral part of the politics and power relationships that drive the urbanization process. She suggests how the political-economy of urbanization in Athens operates, among others, in and through the interweaving of discursive and material practices with respect to the urbanization of nature, and, in particular, of water. The contested politics of urban water circulation are simultaneously the arena in which and means through which particular political-economic programmes are pursued and implemented. The geographical strategies of competitiveness and water control are also broached by Alexander Loftus who analyses in chapter 11 how the political ecology of Durban's waterscape has increasingly come to embody the contradictory...

Other Abiotic Factors

Many aquatic insects are sensitive to water level and flow rate (Ward 1992).These factors can fluctuate dramatically, especially in seasonal habitats, such as desert playas, intermittent streams, wetlands, and perched pools in treeholes and bromeliads (phytotelmata). Water level affects both temperature and water quality, temperature because smaller volumes absorb or lose heat more quickly than do larger volumes, water quality because various solutes become more concentrated as water evaporates. Insects, and other aquatic arthropods, show life history adaptations to seasonal patterns of water availability or quality, often undergoing physiological diapause as water resources disappear (Batzer and Wissinger 1996, Ward 1992). Although most mosquitoes oviposit in surface water, floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes spp. and Psorophora spp., oviposit in soil at the high water line. Their eggs are resistant to desiccation and can remain dormant for several years. Egg hatch is stimulated by...

Ecological Significance of Benzene

The levels of benzene in unpolluted air and surface waters are often below the current analytical detection limits. Although benzene does occur naturally, its primary source of production is known to be petroleum products (and the exhaust from their combustion). The median benzene concentration of ambient air samples from urban areas in the US from 1984 to 1986 was 2.1 ppb (detection limit 0.007 ppb), as determined by the USEPA. Drinking water in the US typically contains less than 0.1 ppb, yet some concern is justified for exposure from consumption of contaminated water drawn from wells near landfills, gasoline storage tanks, and industrial areas. As discussed previously, benzene is rapidly disseminated and degraded in the environment. As a result, environmental benzene toxicity is generally associated with exposure from some concentrated source, such as a leaking storage tank or a petrochemical spill. In order to determine the magnitude of benzene exposures which would be tolerated...

Biomonitoring See bioassay

Bioremediation The use of living organisms to break down pollutants or wastes, such as industrial effluents, mining spoil, or oil spills, and to restore contaminated ecosystems. Plants may be used (phy-toremediation) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils and water. Some crop species can be genetically modified to accumulate toxic ions, e.g. Arabidopsis has been altered to express the enzyme mercuric ion reductase, which converts Hg2+ to Hg, which is volatilized and released into the atmosphere. Uptake may also be assisted by the use of chemical chelating agents to immobilize the toxins. Contaminated water is treated by rhizofiltration using plants with high transpiration rates and extensive root systems, such as willows (Salix) or reeds (Phragmites), or by the use of aquatic plants that are removed and destroyed once they have extracted the toxins. Organic wastes are usually tackled by bacteria and protozoans, and occasionally fungi (certain fungi are capable of breaking...

Discussion Mechanism for a Mid Estuary Turbidity Maximum

One at the limit of sea salt, a second south of its expected position near Grant's Tomb and a third south of the Battery. By contrast, the summer of 1995 was a drought. The discharge in September 1995 was 255 m3 s-1 and the axial distribution of salinity and suspended sediment is shown in Figure4.6. The estuary is well mixed and two distinct turbidity maxima are seen one at the head of salt, and one near Grant's Tomb.

Franka Dicotyledon Symbiosis

The aerobic Gram-positive actinomycetes belonging to the genus Frankia are diazotrophic bacteria that are capable of inducing formation of N2-fixing nodule lobes in roots of many dicotyledonous angiosperms. The plants nodulated by Frankia strains are known as actinorhizal plants and include 8 families, 24 genera, and over 200 species, most of which are perennial woody shrubs or trees distributed in all landmasses except Antarctica. The actinorhizal plants share a predilection for marginally fertile soils and the majority are pioneers on nitrogen-poor sites. In addition, many actinorhizal species are able to tolerate environmental stresses such as heavy metals, high salinity, drought, cold, and extreme pH. They inhabit a variety of ecosystems, including coastal dunes, riparian zones, alpine communities, arctic tundra,

Types of heavymetal sites

Almost all primary metal-enriched sites in Europe have been anthropologically influenced by mining activities. These secondary sites result from mining activities, e.g., disturbed primary sites, spoil and slag heaps, ore processing and concentration (beneficiation) areas. The distinction between primary and secondary is often difficult to elaborate especially with ancient sites. Early mining has diminished most primary occurrences of metallophytes. From the Bronze Age to the late Middle Ages mining had a relatively low impact on the local environment. Metallophytes occurred locally on primary sites, and superficial mining created secondary habitats. Both habitat types were ecologically very similar. At that time mining was restricted to areas with metals outcropping. After the Middle Ages, much larger secondary habitats were created, often far away from areas with primary habitats, by deep underground mining or by metal refining on site. Exceptionally high concentrations of metals in...

Scale and two views of the loss of plant water to the atmosphere

They wholly ignore both the species of plants and their physiology, but their models nevertheless prove to be powerful predictors of the evaporation of water from vegetation that is not suffering from drought. Neither approach is right or wrong which to use depends on the question being asked. Large-scale, climatically based models, for example, are likely to be the most relevant in predicting the evapotranspiration and photosynthesis that might occur in areas of vegetation as a result of global warming and changes in precipitation (Aber & Federer, 1992).

Place Based Energy and Resources

Heading the list on renewable but limited sustainable resources is water. This resource also provides the most immediate and effective feedback to the question How are we doing Water is also admirably deaf to political boundaries, a characteristic that renders it a highly effective common denominator. Water managers, planners, and elected officials typically get into trouble when water-supply and water-budget lines do not reflect the geographic boundaries of the users one system, then, has to steal from the other.

Importance of Calcium to Ecosystems

Calcium is categorized as a major mineral nutrient for plants, and deficiencies of calcium affect plant health. Studies have demonstrated correlations between calcium availability and susceptibility of trees to insect, drought, frost damage, and disease. Tree species, such as sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.), with greater requirements for calcium are more readily damaged due to low calcium availability. Accordingly, Ca deficiency in ecosystems can lead to shifts in plant species composition that may in turn

The Ecological Community

All of the other shrub species listed above are not fire dependent and produce seeds that germinate soon after dispersal however, successful reproduction is relatively uncommon. This is because their seedlings are very sensitive to summer drought and because there are a number of herbivores that live in the chaparral understory and prey on seedlings and other herbaceous vegetation. These include deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes), and brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani). Both rodents (mice and rats) are nocturnal however, evidence of woodrats, or packrats as they are sometimes called, is very evident in many older chaparral stands because of the several foot high nests of twigs they make under the shrub canopy. These animals not only affect community structure by consuming most seedlings and herbaceous species, but also are important vectors for disease and other health threats. For example, deer mice are host to the deadly hanta-virus and woodrats are a...

Regional Variation in Fire Regime

California chaparral exhibits regional differences in burning patterns and largely due to regional variation in winds. In much of coastal California autumn winds create severe fire conditions. These occur every year and result in 5-10 days of strong offshore flow with windspeeds of 100 kph or more. These winds result from a high-pressure system in the interior West, and are known as Santa Ana winds in southern California and Diablo or Mono winds in northern California. As these air masses move from the high-pressure cell in the interior to a low-pressure trough off the coast, the air descends and dries adiabatically, resulting in relative humidity below 10 . The fact that these winds occur every year and arrive at the end of an extended drought results in one of the most severe fire conditions in the world. As a consequence only a small portion of southern California landscape has escaped fire during the last century, and much of the lower-elevation chaparral has burned at an...

Root competition and specialist adaptations

Narrowly endemic species (i.e. those found only in a particular geographical region) are often restricted to distinctive edaphic (soil) environments, as in the case of two species of hakea (Hakea oldfieldii and H. tuberculata) which occur in winter-wet shrublands growing on skeletal soils 0-20 cm deep overlying massive ironstone rock in Mediterranean south-west Australia. This area is the major centre of diversity for this Proteacean genus, which consists of woody perennials ranging in size from shrubs to small trees. Poot and Lambers (2003) studied these together with five other species of Hakea found on more common soils (including two from eucalypt woodland) growing their seedlings in pots 40 cm deep and making harvests at 62,125 and 188 days. Initially the ironstone endemics allocated a significantly greater proportion of dry mass to their roots, although this difference evened out later. At the last harvest the two rare ironstone endemics had an average of 64 of their roots in...

Ecological Engineering and Stream Restoration

The focus of ecological engineering and ecological restoration is similar. Both strive for ecosystem function ing and biotic resilience from disturbances comparable to the historic conditions through the creation of the most natural system obtainable. Resilience is the ability to return to the original state after a disturbance. In streams, disturbances are a natural part of the ecosystem, as floods and droughts shape the physical aspects of the

Factors Affecting Expression of Defenses

Reviews by Koricheva et al. (1998) and G. Waring and Cobb (1992) revealed that response to plant condition varies widely among herbivore species. Schowalter et al. (1999) manipulated water supply to creosotebushes, Larrea tridentata, in New Mexico and found positive, negative, nonlinear, and nonsignificant responses to moisture availability among the assemblage of herbivore and predator species on this single plant species. These results indicated that both hypotheses can be supported by different insect species on the same plant.

Climate Impact on Natural Ecosystems and Human Society

Simulations with coupled climate model indicate that during twenty-first century soil moisture in summer will decrease considerably over the large portion of Europe and United States. This could have potentially serious negative impact on natural vegetation and agriculture, and lead to an increase of forest fire frequency. Combination of warming and changes in hydrological cycle will have serious impact on water resources in many regions. Already now one-third of global population is living in water-stressed countries. Unmitigated global warming will considerably increase the number of people exposed to water stress. At the same time, increased probability of extreme weather events, such as catastrophic floods, heat waves, and more devastating

James Simpson Steven N Chillrud Richard F Bopp Edward Shuster and Damon A Chaky

Abstract This chapter uses data from a few representative sampling sites in the Hudson basin to understand variations in major ion concentrations, which are used as one simple proxy of gross drinking water quality. Other water supply issues, including potential implications of dissolved organic carbon concentrations on drinking water quality, are also discussed. The major ion content of surface waters is largely determined by precipitation chemistry, dry deposition from the atmosphere, chemical weathering of rock and soil minerals, and anthropogenic loadings, and then modified by biogeochemical reactions that take place within the system. (1) Based on data reported for West Point, New York by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), precipitation chemistry in the Hudson River basin is similar to that in much of the northeastern United States. As a result of upwind and regional fossil fuel combustion, sulfate and nitrate are the most abundant anions and hydrogen is the most...

Other Greenhouse Driven Changes Sea Level And Storm Intensity

Changing weather patterns also have the potential to affect coral reefs through impacts on river flows and drought (and hence the amount of sediment running off coastal areas), and through the physical impact of storms. Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of storms via its influence on sea-surface temperature, a fact emphasised by recent events such as hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, Dean and the other record storms in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. On the GBR, cyclones, which are relatively rare in the north and more common in central and southern latitudes, are important drivers of the life expectancies of corals as well as reef and island building processes. Changing cyclone strengths, wave heights and return periods along the GBR will change coastal inundation and the wave climates on reefs,

Major Drivers of Deforestation and Degradation

For example, in the Brazilian Amazon, above 80 of deforestation occurs in a 100 km band along major roads. During recent decades, wildfires have been recognized as a new actor of deforestation and degradation in the Tropics, as a rule following land-use change and fragmentation of forest cover. Exceptional fires took place in east South Asia and the Amazon in 1997-98, provoked by the severe droughts due to the El Nino event. In Indonesia alone, these fires enveloped 2.4 million ha of forest and peatland. Other drivers can be important in different regions of the globe, such as insect damage, drainage or other forms of alteration of wetlands, permafrost destruction in high latitudes, etc.

Ecological Role and Diversity of Microorganisms

Except for their crucial part in mycorrhizal associations, desert microorganisms are noteworthy for their role in three typical desert phenomena desert crusts, desert varnish, and interstitial communities. Desert crusts are microbiotic communities composed of drought and heat-tolerant algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, lichen, and mosses. These often species-rich communities are held together by sticky polysaccharide secretions and thus form surface crusts. Desiccated crusts are often indiscernible until rainfall or dew moistens the surface and microbial communities become active and green. Under extreme conditions, such crusts can form below the surface. This is possible especially under the protection of semitransparent calcareous or siliceous stones (quartz is a good example) that enables transmission of light up to a depth of 5 cm. The most common life form in crusts (and in some areas also in hot deserts in general) is cyanobac-teria. Among their roles in the desert ecosystem are...

System Ecology Ecosystem and Communities

In contrast to this basic view of deserts, two major alternative hypotheses have been developed in regard to the driving factors defining communities and populations in deserts. One hypothesis states that only the primary producers are water limited and all other trophic levels (consumers) are determined by the magnitude of this water-dependent primary production. Another hypothesis postulates that water shortage affects organisms only individually and has no direct effect on higher-order species interactions. According to this view, aridity effects on ecosystems and communities are rather the indirect outcomes of direct physiological and behavioral responses of individual organisms (and their populations) to scarcity of water. Despite the fact that the temporal and spatial lack of water is clearly the driving force behind the individual ecologies of desert species, current research makes it clear that species interactions, including both negative and positive ones, can be strong in...

Resource Consumer Relationships Trophic Interactions

Similar to other ecosystems, deserts host a large variety of herbivorous animals that potentially utilize every part of the plants. Some of the drought adaptations of plants, discussed before, also function to deter herbivores. Tough outer layers, spines, and elevated leaf chemicals, all typical for desert plants, can therefore also be understood as mechanisms to protect low and therefore costly primary production. Some plants appear to employ growth forms that make them less conspicuous for herbivores. Remarkable examples are the living stones (Lithops species, Aizoaceae) of South Africa that blend with the surrounding rocky desert pavement.

Thorn Scrub and Cactus Forests

Venezuela Forest

Fig. 3.10A,B Types of dry tropical forest. A Drought deciduous forest (Falcon, Venezuela). B Cactus-forest (Carora, Venezuela) Fig. 3.10A,B Types of dry tropical forest. A Drought deciduous forest (Falcon, Venezuela). B Cactus-forest (Carora, Venezuela) scarcity of water or drought (H2O),

Crawley WA Australia Perth WA Australia

Diapause is an ecological strategy for the avoidance of harsh conditions that involves the cessation ofdevelopment of a subadult life stage. It is essentially a time-delaying tactic to synchronize further stages of the life cycle with appropriate environmental conditions. Diapause is especially common in insects but is also observed in a wide variety of other invertebrate animals (e.g., brine shrimp embryos) and vertebrate animals (e.g., annual killifish embryos), as well as many plants (e.g., buds, bulbs, rhizomes, and seeds). Some plant seeds require drying out before they can develop, ensuring that adverse dry seasons pass before the embryo starts to develop. Diapause is also a reproductive strategy in a variety of mammals for the delayed implantation and development of embryos (e.g., macropod marsupials, mustelids, and deer). Quiescence is a period of inactivity, similar to diapause, but is a facultative response to an immediate change in environmental conditions that is...

Population Age and Size

The distribution of genotypes in the boles of living trees has also been taken as an indication of the infection biology. Latent infection in beech has, for example been implied by the large-sized genets developing rapidly in trunks and branches after drought (Chapela and Boddy, 1988). Such large mycelia are thought to have been established during earlier phases of tree growth, and dormant propagules distributed extensively in the xylem were triggered to grow as mycelia by the onset of wood drying and increased aeration. Two other examples are provided by P. tremulae and P. pini. They initially establish in branches, the stubs of which ultimately become incorporated into trunk wood. In due course the sapwood becomes heartwood, again with decreased water content and improved aeration, triggering the development of active decay in the branch stubs buried in the heartwood (Haddow, 1938). The population structure of P. tremulae was consistent with this type of establishment (Holmer et...

Concluding Remarks and Future Perspective

This chapter summarizes the information on the population biology of H. man-tegazzianum in various habitat types within its invaded distribution range in the Czech Republic and Germany. H. mantegazzianum is a monocarpic perennial (Pergl et al., 2006 Perglova et al., Chapter 4, this volume) with a poor seed bank (Moravcova et al., Chapter 5, this volume). Although this species is invasive, once an area is colonized the population growth rate shows little variation between habitat types and fluctuates around X 1. As in many other plant species, environmental stochasticity, especially extreme climatic conditions, exerts a strong influence on population dynamics. In undisturbed conditions, a close match between the observed and stable stage distributions and a high elasticity for stasis suggest that dense monospecific stands have reached the carrying capacity of the habitat. In contrast, in open stands growth transitions have a large effect on the population growth rate. However,...

Definition of Ecological Risk

ERA originally focused on the undesired ecological effects of toxic chemicals. As ERA evolved, the set of stressors has expanded to include physical, geological, hydrological, and biological stressors. Examples of these kinds of stressors include physical habitat degradation, erosion of soils or sediments, drought floods, and introductions of exotic species. One testament to the conceptual soundness of this approach to ERA has been its successful application to nonchemical stressors.

Other natural movements leading to vagrancy

The occurrence of severe droughts in the desert and semi-desert regions of southern Asia sometimes results in the appearance of arid land species in western Europe. Examples include the Pallas's Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus and Rose-coloured Starling Sturnus roseus, and also Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea and Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus, which often appear in the same summers as one another, as in 1886, 1892 and 1994 (Cottridge & Vinicombe 1996). Irruptions of Pallas's Sandgrouse were noted in 12 years between 1859 and 1909, the largest in 1863 and 1888, but the species has appeared much less often and in only small numbers subsequently (Chapter 16).

Environmental Pollution and Degradation Caused by Mining and Beneficiation Process

The tonnage of material handled and processed by mining and beneficiation is directly linked to the amount of solid waste left at the mining site, and this amount correlates with requirements for energy resources, water resources, and land resources (Norgate, this volume). Mining and processing activities are related to a variety of environmental concerns

Defining Ecosystem Services

Regulating services Generation of Cycling and filtration processes Detoxification and decomposition of wastes Generation and renewal of soil fertility Purification of air and water Translocation processes Dispersal of seeds to sustain tree and other plant cover Pollination of crops and other plants Stabilizing processes Coastal and river channel stability Control of the majority of potential pest species Carbon sequestration Partial stabilization of climate Protection from disasters regulation of hydrological cycle (mitigation of floods and droughts)

Intraspecific Variation

The great variability of Norway spruce in the wild and its propensity to form morphological variants has resulted in its extensive use in ornamental plantings. To date, about 150 such varieties have been described. Many were found in the wild, such as var. virgata or columnaris. Numerous dwarf varieties are often fixed teratological forms arising from witches' brooms. The cultivars of Picea abies subsp. abies are generally divided into three groups tree-like forms, dwarf forms, and varicolored. Some differ from the typical Norway spruce in their ecological and physiological characteristics. For example, the dwarf forms are drought resistant and grow well on sandy soils. Below are mentioned some of the most commonly planted ornamental forms.

Components of the Edaphic Factor

Organic matter in soils ranges from recognizable plant parts (roots, leaves, stems) to humus, which is partly decomposed plant material that is amorphous and spongy in nature. Organic matter contributes to a soil's ability to retain nutrients and water (i.e., soil's CEC). It aids in holding nutrients because negatively charged compounds in humus attract and hold positively charged plant nutrient ions. It helps provide water because humus can absorb 80-90 of its weight in water and therefore contributes to a soil's ability to hold water under drought conditions.

Density Independent Factors

Disturbances create lethal conditions for many insects. For example, fire can burn exposed insects (Porter and Redak 1996, P. Shaw et al. 1987) or raise temperatures to lethal levels in unburned microsites. Tumbling cobbles in flooding streams can crush benthic insects (Reice 1985). Flooding of terrestrial habitats can create anaerobic soil conditions. Drought can raise air and soil temperatures and cause desiccation (Mattson and Haack 1987). Populations of many species can suffer severe mortality as a result of these factors, and rare species may be eliminated (P. Shaw et al. 1987, Schowalter 1985). Willig and Camilo (1991) reported the virtual disappearance of two species of walkingsticks, Lamponius portoricensis and Agamemnon iphimedeia, from tabonuco, Dacryodes excelsa, forests in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Hugo. Drought can reduce water levels in aquatic ecosystems, reducing or eliminating habitat for some aquatic insects. In contrast, storms may redistribute insects picked...

Leaf Shedding and Hydraulic Architecture

In dry tropical forests some trees may have access to deep water sources and can maintain their water-use during drought. These trees do not have a great seasonal variation in their leaf fall (Meinzer et al. 1999). In other trees leaf shedding is an avoidance strategy in terms of the biological stress concept and like for savannas (Sect. 10.1.2.1) phenological cycles play an important role. Many dry tropical forest trees shed leaves at the onset of the dry season. A reduction of hydraulic conductance of the leaves precedes senescence and possibly causes senescence (Sobrado 1993 Brodribb and Holbrook 2003). Trees may flush new leaves before the onset of the rainy season protecting the young growth from herbivory (see Sect. 3.4.4.3) Hydraulic architecture needs to be adapted. By shedding leaves drought-deciduous species avoid significant plant water loss during the driest and hottest months but they must cope with larger seasonal water potential fluctuations in their leaves and require...

Violations Of Water Quality Standards

From a holistic perspective, a major source of wastewater discharges is associated with increases in the violations of receiving water quality standards. The 1990 National Water Quality Inventory in the United States assessed, in relation to applicable water quality standards and designated beneficial uses of the water, about one-third of the total river miles, half of the acreages of lakes, and three-quarters of the estuarine square miles. Table 7.2.4 summarizes these results relative to supporting designated uses. About one-third of the three assessed water resources did not fully meet their respective designated uses (Council on Environmental Quality 1993). Table 7.2.5 indicates the causes and sources of pollution for the three types of water resources. Figure 7.2.3 shows pollution sources for impaired river miles Figure 7.2.4 shows pollution in estuarine waters. While they are not the only sources of pollution, municipal and industrial wastewater discharges contribute...

The degree of organization in the Krakatau assembly process

The Krakatau plant and animal recolonization data thus suggest a general trend in the degree of predictability through time. While the draw of early pioneers is fairly predictable as a function in large measure of their superior dispersability, precisely which later successional species happen to establish breeding populations is much less predictable. Thornton (1996) has made a further, interesting point regarding the elements of chance and determinism. He draws the analogy between community assembly and the construction of a jigsaw, arguing that the further on in the process a species joins the system the less influence it can have over subsequent events, as it operates within successively narrow bands set by what has gone before. Thus a late-joining species may be unpredictable in its identity, yet may be predicted to have relatively little impact on community trajectories. The parallel with the assembly rules of Diamond is clear. At early stages of the recovery process, a number...

Predicting Future Extinction and Factors That Make Species Endangered

For instance, if we flip a coin 100 times we will probably get roughly 50 'heads' and 50 'tails'. But if we flip a coin only ten times, there is a greater chance of getting a more lop-sided result, such as 10 'tails' - and if tails meant a chance death, then clearly a small population size is a great disadvantage. These effects are referred to as demographic stochasticity and usually apply to populations of reproductive females substantially less than 100. Of course, environments fluctuate due to droughts, heat waves, or unusually harsh winters, and species we normally think of as being much more numerous than 100 can be driven to unusually low numbers by temporarily poor environmental conditions, and then become at risk of extinction due to demographic stochasticity. Mathematical models of population extinction in fluctuating environments suggest that populations smaller than 1000 are likely to be at substantial risk because of a combination of fluctuating environments and...

Construction and Operation of a Hydropower

Project is the type of activity, the capacity, the location, the character of the activity, and possibility of cumulative effects with other types of anthropogenic activities. The identification of necessity of the project for this type of project is usually very similar the main reason to construct hydropower dam is generation of power to meet growing national demands for electricity and to ensure reliable sources. The secondary reason for building a hydropower dam is flow regulation downstream from the dam contributing to the flood control and irrigation, another reason is a recreational purpose and drinking water supply. Important part of screening stage is the identification of proposed location as well as identification of alternative options is a part of the primary step, together with a short description of technical and operational solutions. Identification of the proposed starting and ending date of the activity is another important information collected during the first step...

Physiological versus Ecological Optimum Ranges

Tolerance also varies with plant developmental stage. It is well-known that juveniles are more vulnerable to stressful conditions such as drought or heat than adult plants, while young woody plants can tolerate low light availability in the understory better than older plants that have larger amount of support structures relative to unit foliage biomass. These examples collectively illustrate the caveats of employing species physiological tolerance limits estimated commonly with young plants in predicting species distribution.

Plasticity and Tolerance

Evolutionarily, plasticity is not maximized in situations where environment varies in an unpredictable way (e.g., occurrence of rain in arid habitats), when other co-occurring factors may decrease the fitness of the alternative pheno-types generated by a highly plastic (e.g., drought in low light plants with a poorly developed root system) or when a plastic response to the environment may not improve long-term performance (e.g., elongating strategy in dense vegetation stands when neighbors cannot be easily overtopped). There is evidence from plants from a wide range of ecosystems that tolerance of extreme environments is associated with low plasticity and low growth rates, possibly, because of high carbon and energetic costs associated with reorganization of plant physiology and structure during acclimation. For instance, the most shade-tolerant plant species are known to have low plasticity to light availability.

Windthrow Disturbance and Mosaic

Many studies have emphasized the role of abiotic factors in forest dynamics. Fires, catastrophic windthrow, drought etc. are all important elements in steady-state and gap-phase-dominated models. Little information is available on the consequences of these stressors in terms of rate, scale, and severity across the landscape.

Sharon Y Strauss and Justen B Whittall

Despite the dominating role of pollinators in floral evolution, mounting evidence reveals significant additional, often antagonistic, influences of abiotic and biotic non-pollinator agents. Even when pollinators and other agents impose selection on floral traits in the same direction, the role of other agents is frequently overlooked. Maintenance of genetic variation in floral traits and divergence from trait optima for pollination can result from both indirect selection on correlated traits and direct selection on floral traits. For example, in numerous species, periods of heat or drought favour pink- or purple-flowered individuals over white-flowered ones, because associated anthocyanins in vegetative tissues enhance stress tolerance. Conflicting selection on floral traits may also occur directly when floral antagonists and mutualists share the same preferences. We review the evidence for influences of abiotic and biotic non-pollinator agents of selection on several floral traits...

The evolution of elephant society

We are barely beginning to understand objectively the importance of the leadership role of the matriarch in survival of her family, an aspect that many elephant observers have speculated upon. In a highly social, intelligent, and long-lived animal, the matriarch is virtually an encyclopedia of stored knowledge that her family can draw on. By leading her family or higher social entity to the best foraging and watering grounds on a daily or seasonal basis or rediscovering a water source used in the distant past during a time of drought, the matriarch enhances the fitness of her social group.

Deteriorating Ore Resources

For primary metals1 for at least many decades, even with increased levels of dematerialization (i.e., the reduction in the amount of energy and materials required for the production of consumer goods or the provision of services) and recycling. While the potential for the discovery of new high grade (i.e., metal content) resources2 exists, it is almost inevitable that ore resources will deteriorate over time as higher grade resources are exploited and progressively depleted. Figure 8.1 charts, for example, the decline in grade of copper, lead, and gold ores in the United States and Australia over the past century. In addition, many of the newer ore resources are fine-grained, requiring finer grind sizes to achieve mineral liberation. Both of these effects, either combined or in isolation, increase the amount of energy and water resources required for primary metal production. This interaction between energy, water, and metallic ore resources will have a significant impact on the...

The Failure of Present Estuarine Management from Ignoring Ecohydrology

Implementing the ecohydrology approach necessitates getting away from present management practices based on regulation focused on the geography (e.g., individual municipalities or counties) or on individual, specific activities (e.g., farming and fisheries, water resources, urbanization, shipping) without integrating among localities and users so as to consider the ecosystem. Without this change in thinking and management concept, estuaries and coastal waters will continue to degrade, whatever integrated coastal management plans are Can science-based management save estuaries and coastal waters About environmental management the main thing that can be reliably managed is the human behavior and practices. The main thing that ecological engineers can do is to highlight the role of ecohydrology in offering a robust, science-based way to quantify both the present human impact on the degradation of estuarine and coastal ecosystems and the likelihood of success of various remediation...

Coral Reef Ecohydrology Model

The sustainable development of coastal waters and coral reefs is dependent on development policies for land and water resources. To quantify this dependency, it is necessary to understand the key biological and oceano-graphic processes governing the health of these coastal ecosystems. These processes are then incorporated in a coral reef ecohydrological model that can predict reef health. The immediate use and role of this model is to help answer two key questions for managers. These two key questions are as follows (1) to what extent do changes

Producers and consumers

Certain carnivores, which consume both herbivores and detritivores, link the herbivore and decomposition subsystems. There are many variations on these basic themes. Omnivorous forest bears eat plants, hunt live animals and eat carrion. Similarly some fungi are parasites (living on their hosts but not killing them), others are pathogens (rapidly killing their hosts) and others are saprotrophs (decomposing dead hosts), and yet others are combinations of these. A fungus might invade a tree without causing undue harm, but if the tree is weakened in a drought year, it may rapidly succumb to the same fungus which can then use the dead tree as a food supply while exploring for another host. Eventually the dead remains of autotrophs and heterotrophs, together with faeces, are mineralized and the whole process, which began with the exploitation of mineral nutrients in the soil, can start again.

Forestera Background And Objectives

The intense fire season of 2000 burned more than 600 000 acres (243 000 ha) in Arizona and New Mexico, including part of the city of Los Alamos, forcing an evacuation that raised forest management questions that reverberated in Washington, D.C. The ensuing debate resulted in emergency appropriations in fiscal year 2001 by the U.S. Congress (Department of Interior and Related Agencies Conference Report 106-914) to fund progressive approaches to the emerging wildfire crisis that had been brought on by mismanagement and drought in the Southwest. The emergency appropriations bill called for an adaptive ecosystem analysis of ponderosa pine and related forests as a prototype for larger ecosystem analyses, and to fill the gap between project or district forest level analyses and regional analyses to support future operational scale treatments. This mandate reflected the growing realization that sound planning should occur at the same scale as the defining disturbances such as wildfire an...

Estuarine Ecohydrology

In practice, this integrative management policy is not properly implemented anywhere worldwide. Nowhere in the world is there an effective mechanism enabling cooperation between water-resource managers dealing with hydrology, water supply, and hydroelectricity, city councils dealing with urbanization and waste disposal, fisheries managers dealing with commercial and recreational fisheries, and land-use managers dealing with industrial and agricultural developments within the whole river catchment. Management is still largely dictated by politics. Thus estuarine restoration is still a science-based engineering practice in its infancy. There are attempts to restore estuaries based on river catchment management as well as local estuarine habitat restoration efforts, such as for the Mersey and Thames rivers in the UK, the Rhine River in Europe, and the Chesapeake Bay in the USA, however all of these attempts have been hampered by

Environmental Pollution Sensors

When a contaminated water sample stream is irradiated with UV waves at a peak intensity of 365 nm, the oil contaminant emits visible radiation. This radiation can be measured by a photocell. Visible radiation increases with increasing concentrations of the fluorescent substance. The relationship between the concentration and the visible radiation emitted is substantially linear in low concentrations (below 15 X 10 6). In higher concentrations, some non-linearity occurs as a result of a saturation effect.

Species Diversity and Invasion Resistance

In 1958, Charles Elton hypothesized that communities rich in species were more resistant to invasion than less diverse communities. His hypothesis has proved to be stimulating but very difficult to test. The determinants of species diversity in biotic communities are complex and include processes operating on temporal scales ranging from long evolutionary time to short ecological time. A long history of evolution under conditions favorable to growth of organisms favors high species diversity. Tropical rain forests and coral reefs, for example, are ancient ecosystem types that have accumulated species over long evolutionary time. Other determinants of diversity are biogeographic factors, such as geographic isolation. Islands, where only small populations can develop, are subject to colonization and extinction dynamics that set a low evolutionary limit to species richness. Still other determinants involve events on an ecological time scale, especially disturbances such as fire, flood,...

The Hydrologic Cycle and ET

In agroecosystems, it is important to have a water balance to protect the sustainability and productivity of the agroecosystems. Water-level declines may result in increased costs for groundwater withdrawals because of increased pumping lift and decreased well yields. Waterlevel declines also can affect groundwater availability, surface water flow, and near-stream habitat (riparian) areas, and other ecological systems. Therefore developing efficient and effective management strategies is crucial for protecting sustainability of efficient use of water resources, protecting habitat and environment, and preventing ground and surface water degradation.

Flower size and display size

Pollinators often prefer large flowers, but bigger flowers may be costly in some environments (reviewed in Galen 1999). Flower development requires considerable water, because most change in petal size from bud to flower involves hydraulic cell expansion (Galen 1999, 2000). In P. viscosum, the amount of water taken up by flower buds accounts for 66 of the variation in petal size. In this case, pollinator attraction and increased drought tolerance appear to be at odds, because the diversion of water to developing flowers also compromises photosynthetic rates under drought conditions (Galen 2000). In Rosmarinus officinalis, a similar pattern exists across an elevational range, with smaller flowers in more stressful environments of dry coastal Mediterranean regions and larger flowers in moist, rich-soiled mountainous regions (Herrera 2005). Even though pollinators probably prefer larger rosemary flowers, smaller flowers may be favoured by the resource-cost compromise of the arid coastal...

Sexual Reproduction of Wetland Angiosperms

Because wetland habitats are often stable, why should sexual reproduction exist there at all In fact, wetland environments can be unstable. Short-term changes in water level due to sudden flooding or droughts can bring about drastic variations in the growth conditions of wetland plants. Within the time frame of plant evolutionary processes, such habitat-altering and land-forming forces as glaciation and continental drift have brought about changes in wetland habitats. Vascular wetland plants adapt to these changes through genetic selection that occurs with sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction also allows for genetic responses to pathogen outbreaks, which are unpredictable and can negatively affect a population at any time (Ehrlich and Raven 1969 Philbrick and Les 1996).

Relative strengths of pollinator and nonpollinator agents of selection

Plant height in Castilleja linariaefolia than do pollinators, with calyx length experiencing opposing selection from pollinators and seed predators. Irwin (2006) also demonstrated that nectar robbers and pollinators impose weak, conflicting selection on floral traits of Ipomopsis aggregata. In this case, weak linkage between pollination and seed set attenuated selection from both pollinators and robbers, as did marked yearly variation in selection. In contrast, Galen and Cuba (2001) showed that conflicting selection between nectar robbers and pollinators of Polemonium viscosum favoured a different optimal corolla flare than expected from selection by bumble bee pollinators alone. Finally, browsing ungulates eat so many fruits and flowers of Erysimum mediohispanicum that pollinators enhance fitness only in the absence of herbivores (Gomez 2005). Exclusion of ungulates from plants for seven years resulted in divergence in flower shape and stalk height from that of exposed plants in a...

Interactions with Other Ecological Factors

The ecological effects of exploitation are often not independent of other factors, rather they are strongly interactive. The productivity of an ecosystem, for example, may broadly determine its ability to absorb the effects of exploitation. In highly productive systems the population growth rates of most species will be high, and may compensate moderate mortality inflicted by exploitation. In contrast, unproductive systems like the deep sea often show rapid resource collapse and slow recovery from the impacts of exploitation. The extent of natural disturbance may also be important. If natural mortality from disturbance is high, very little additional mortality may be tolerated. Climatic variability can influence both productivity (e.g., through droughts) and disturbance regime (e.g., through storms and floods). Thus, it can be critical in influencing the effects of exploitation on a population or ecosystem. A population that is very resilient to exploitation in a good year may rapidly...

Expanding Populations

An important consequence of rapid population growth and dispersal is the colonization of marginally suitable resources or patches where populations could not persist in the absence of continuous influx. Whereas small populations of herbivores, such as locusts or bark beetles, may show considerable selectivity in acceptance of potential hosts, rapidly growing populations often eat all potential hosts in their path. Dense populations of the range caterpillar, Hemileuca oliviae, disperse away from population centers as grasses are depleted and form an expanding ring, leaving denuded grassland in their wake. Landscapes that are conducive to population growth and spread, because of widespread homogeneity of resources, facilitate colonization of surrounding patches and more isolated resources because of the large numbers of dispersing insects. Epidemic populations of southern pine beetles, generated in the homogenous pine forests of the southern Coastal Plain during the drought years of the...

Recovery of macroinvertebrate communities

This has been largely successful in terms of point sources, although diffuse sources and the residual sediment pollution remain a major challenge. There have been a number of studies into the recovery of riverine systems following disturbance from channel modification, flooding, drought, acidification and contamination with pesticides (see Milner 1994 Ormerod & Durance 2009). However, studies into recovery following pollution by metals and organ-ics is less common, possibly due to the difficulty in addressing the diffuse sources of these pollutants. However, over recent years, there have been some efforts to remove point sources of metals, particularly where mining activities have ceased and or remediation strategies applied. For example, within the UK, constructed wetlands have been used to remove metals (mostly iron) from coal mine effluent in a number of sites (Coal Authority 2009). The removal of point sources of metals may lead to the recovery of stream...

Sources of Contamination

However, there also are several other potential sources of water contamination. Water from activities such as bathing, showering, and toothbrushing, and from hand, dish, and clothes washing (often referred to as graywater, as opposed to the blackwater containing fecal material) may also contain pathogens, although typically in lower concentrations and of some different types. Urban and suburban stormwater contains fecal material and urine from pets and probably from rats, squirrels, and other wildlife. In some areas heavy concentrations of geese contribute large quantities of waste material. Agriculture may also be an important source of contamination directly from the animals being raised, or from the spreading of their manure this may enter water through treated or untreated discharges, stormwater, or irrigation return flows (the portion of the irrigation water that flows off the field and back to a surface water, mainly to prevent salt buildup). Even in pristine areas water may not...

Fuel Consumption Patterns

Fires may consume different fuels due in large part to the vertical and horizontal distribution of plant structures. 'Surface fires' are spread by fuels that are on the ground, which can be either living herbaceous biomass or dead leaf and stem material. Often these occur in forests where the trees hold their canopies aloft and out of reach of the flames. Alternatively, 'crown fires' burn in the canopies of trees or shrubs. Forests are commonly characterized by either a surface fire or crown fire regime, but in other forests mixtures of both fire types occur. Sometimes fires burn through organic matter underground and these are termed 'ground fires', which spread slowly and can last for months, particularly on sites with peat substrate such as swamps during severe droughts.

Causes of Deforestation 421

Myers (1984) cited shifting cultivation as the most important cause of deforestation. There are various types of shifting cultivation. A destructive type of shifting cultivation is practiced by non-indigenous colonizers who often know little about farming, other than chopping down the forest, burning it, and planting corn or rice in the ashes. After 2 or 3 years, production gives out, and they are forced to move further into the wilderness. They may just abandon the land, or they may sell their land to a consolidator, perhaps a rancher, who is buying up land in the region, either for pasture or for speculation. In Brazil, some of these shifting cultivators are from the drought-ridden north-east and have migrated into the Amazon rain forest and cleared small patches for agriculture. Although they may follow roads built by the government or by loggers, they act on their own. Other colonizers may be participants in a government resettlement program, in which people from other regions of...

Fungal pathogens and death

Considerable importance in determining whether it will or will not become infected. Water stress, caused both by dry soils and waterlogging, has been shown to influence infection by honey fungus of susceptible woody species. Popoola and Fox (2003) used isolates of Armillaria mellea and A. gallica to infect healthy blackcurrant, strawberry, Lawson cypress and privet. Previous to this the host plants had been watered normally, subjected to drought or waterlogged for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period chemical analysis of the roots showed that levels of protein, lipids and carbohydrates were higher in both groups of stressed plants than they were in those watered normally. The increased nutrient levels found in both the droughted and waterlogged plants were sufficient to enhance the virulence of both A. mellea and A. gallica.

Potential for Conflicts with Nature Conservation

In a Germany-wide questionnaire survey addressed to district nature conservation authorities (Thiele, 2006), H. mantegazzianum was quite frequently reported to occur in nature reserves and even plant communities of conservation concern. However, no rare habitats, communities or co-occurring plant species were found associated with H. mantegazzianum during our field studies in Germany. Furthermore, analysis of preferred site conditions showed that H. mantegazzianum is barely capable of invading sites offering suitable conditions (drought, wetness, poor nutrient status) for rare species and communities and, if so, H. mantegazzianum would be constrained to low abundances (Thiele and Otte, 2006b). Therefore, it seems that H. mantegazzianum cannot endanger plant communities and plant species of concern for nature conservation.

Some serious fungal pathogens

Many serious problems facing trees are due to fungi, as a number of diseases are sweeping through various areas of the globe. Phytophthora cinnamoni, introduced into Western Australia in 1921, is killing very large numbers of trees across southern Australia. The closely related sudden oak death Phytophthora ramorum causes serious problems in southern Oregon and California, where it has already killed more than 100 000 tanoak Lithocarpus densiflorus, Californian black oak Quercus kelloggii and other related species. The fungus thrives in warm, moist conditions and its spores can be carried in water or in mud on shoes or vehicle tyres so far there is no concrete evidence that it is spread by birds or wild mammals. In Europe it is a threat not only to alien oaks and the native oaks Quercus robur and Q. petraea, but also to beech, sweet chestnut, maples and a variety of shrubs. It was found in England on established Viburnum, Magnolia, Camellia, Rhododendron and Pieris in the summer of...

Sourcesink metapopulations and the rescue effect

Sink populations can be important to the long-term survival of a source population. Assume that the source population is prone to chaotic behavior, or shows great fluctuations in size because of disease or sensitivity to environmental fluctuations such as drought or fire. In this case the source population itself could be rescued if connected to a sink (Gyllenberg et al. 1993).

Direct Ecological Effects of Forest Plantation

Concerns about plantations and water are as varied as the issues surrounding biodiversity but generally relate to water use, water quality, or alteration of natural drainage. Species of Eucalyptus planted outside their native Australia have attracted the most negative attention for their putative excessive water use, especially in Africa and India but Populus species have similarly been accused in China of lowering local water tables and adding to drought. Species such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, and E. robusta (and hybrids of these and other eucalypts) are drought tolerant and able to transpire even under considerable moisture stress. On balance they probably do not use

Herbivory and plant survival

Generally, it is more usual for herbivores to increase a plant's susceptibility to mortality than to kill it outright. For example, although the flea beetle Altica sublicata reduced the growth rate of the sand-dune willow Salix cordata in both 1990 and 1991 (Figure 9.5), significant mortality as a result of drought stress only occurred in 1991. Then, however, susceptibility was strongly influenced by the herbivore 80 of plants died in a high herbivory treatment (eight beetles per plant), 40 died at four beetles per plant, but none of the beetle-free control plants died (Bach, 1994).

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