List of Illustrations

1.1 Classic illustration of the density-dependent paradigm of population regulation

3.1 Location estimates for adult female bear 61 in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, North Carolina

3.2 Location estimates and contours for the probability density function for adult female black bear 87

3.3 Locations of (a) an adult female black bear, (b) an adult wolf, and (c) an adult male stone marten

3.4 A complex, simulated home range

3.5 The 95% fixed kernel home range for adult female black bear 61 in 1983

3.6 Possible relationships between probability of use and percentage of home range

3.7 Core area and home range for an adult female bear

4.1 Hypothetical movements of an animal overlaid on five habitat types

4.2 Hypothetical relationships between area and use of habitat

4.3 The assumed linear relationship between use and availability of resources

4.4 The assumed linear relationship between use and availability of habitats

5.1 Comparison of four methods used to investigate prey use by wolves

5.2 Relationship between 13C signatures of the diet of equilibrated plasma in black bears and polar bears

5.3 Relationship between 15N signatures of the diet of equilibrated plasma in black bears and polar bears

5.4 Internal and external factors affecting foraging decisions by a lago-morph

5.5 Information content and sample resolution of common methods used to investigate vertebrate food habits

6.1 Change in gypsy moth density

6.2 (a) Percentage mortality of gypsy moth, and (b) time series of percentage mortality of gypsy moth

6.3 Graphic detection of delayed density dependence

6.4 Use of time series to detect delayed density dependence

6.5 Key factor analysis of a population of the partridge Perdix perdix L. in England

7.1 Relationship between population indices and actual animal abundance

7.2 Variation between habitats in index—abundance relationships

7.3 Variation in the index—abundance relationship over time

8.1 Graphic representation of a single-species model for prey abundance

8.2 Stable-limit cycle from a two-species predator—prey model

8.3 Illustrations of hypothetical type I, II, and III functional responses for wolves preying on elk

8.4 Functional and numerical responses for wolves preying on moose

8.5 Stability map for a second-order autoregressive process

8.6 Population dynamics emerging from second-order autoregressive models

9.1 Deterministic model of population growth

9.2 Three examples of the outcome of the population model with only demographic variation

9.3 Persistence of a population as a function of initial population size

9.4 Examples of the beta distribution, all with mean 0.5

9.5 Persistence of a population of 100 animals at t = 0 to t = 100 years

9.6 Effect of individual variation on population persistence

9.7 Three examples of possible relationships of recruitment per individual to population size

9.8 Example of how an Allee effect is created by a declining birth rate at low densities

10.1 Data on the interactions between male and female wood mice

10.2 The proportion of time spent grooming different portions of the body surface

10.3 Barplots of badger allogrooming behavior

10.4 What constitutes proximity between individuals differs between species

10.5 Considerations in scoring indices of association

10.6 Exploration of patterns of spatial proximity

10.7 The goal of translating indices of social behavior into evolutionary consequences

10.8 The same observations of social interactions expressed in three ways

10.9 The flow of rubbing between a group of four cats

10.10 The flow diagram (state-space representation) of the sex-dependent nose-to-nose interaction

11.1 Percentage of papers dealing with habitat modeling

11.2 General data flow of the two main categories of GIS species distribution models identified

11.3 Population dynamics event in relation to time and space scales

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