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Levinton is Distinguished Professor of Ecology and Evolution at Stony Brook University and has worked for many years as a researcher in marine ecology and as a textbook writer in Marine Biology. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow, a Fulbright Senior Fellow and has done research and lectured at many institutions throughout the world. He is also the recipient of the State University of New York Chancellor's award for excellence in teaching.
Environmental impact statements shall be written in plain language and may use appropriate graphics so that decision makers and the public can readily understand them. Agencies should employ writers of clear prose or editors to write, review, or edit statements, which will be based upon the analysis and supporting data from the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts.
With the rise of Chandragupta Maurya, the culture of capturing and training elephants, their veterinary care, their deployment in the army, and even the protection of wild elephants was firmly established. The Mauryan Empire, which controlled a vast territory over the subcontinent, was a formidable one by any standards. A highly centralized bureaucracy, with a role that was well defined, was needed to administer it, and a vast army, described as an economic liability in peacetime, was needed to secure its borders. Pliny the Elder, the famous Roman writer, cites a figure of 9,000 elephants in the Mauryan army, with a further estimate of at least 5,000 elephants held by other tribes in the subcontinent. We have no reason to disbelieve these figures entirely. The subcontinent held large stocks of wild elephants, and their overexploitation through an elaborately organized system of management was certainly possible. This would also have resulted in local extinctions of elephant...
One of the great intellectual triumphs of the 20th century was the discovery of the generalized linear model (GLM). This provides a single elegant and very powerful framework in which 90 of data analysis can be done. Conceptual unification should make teaching much easier. But, at least in biology, the textbook writers have been slow to get rid of the historical baggage. These two books are a huge leap forward.
Real value, because most part of memory information is the same in all contemporary people. The unique non-overlapping information of the civilization is stored in memories of specialists (professionals) - scientists, craftsmen, writers, musicians, artists. Working specialists constitute not more than about 10 of the whole population (multiplier 10 1). Each field of knowledge can normally exist with no less than 100 specialists working in this field and sharing the same memory information (multiplier 10 2). The real value of information store of the modern civilization can be obtained multiplying the upper estimate by 10 3, which gives about 1016 bit.
Fig. 7.6 Adult white-crowned sparrow in orientation cage (Emlen type) at the magnetic North Pole. The sloping walls are covered by type-writer correction paper. Photo Susanne Akesson. Fig. 7.6 Adult white-crowned sparrow in orientation cage (Emlen type) at the magnetic North Pole. The sloping walls are covered by type-writer correction paper. Photo Susanne Akesson.
Many writers have treated schizophrenia in terms of the most extreme contrast with any other form of human thinking and behavior. While it is an isolable phenomenon, so much emphasis on the differences from the normal rather like the fearful physical segregation of psychotics does not help in understanding the problems. In our approach we assume that schizophrenia involves general principles which are important in all communication and therefore many in-formative similarities can be found in normal communication situations.
Would you rather have a summer picnic on a paved parking lot or on cool grass under a shade tree near a stream Many people find pleasure in nature's biodiversity. Perhaps you like to visit scenic areas to hike, swim, relax, or enjoy the views. Many painters, writers, and musicians find inspiration for their work by spending time outdoors. However, beauty and pleasure are not the only reasons why biodiversity is important.
The modern conversation movement didn't have its beginnings in the settled of the Old World, but in the New World where, within the memory of a single generation, there had been extreme changes in the landscape and in the abundance of wildlife. The reaction to the destruction of natural resources precipitated the formation and growth of the conservation movement. In 1832 George Catlin, a U.S. artist and author, first proposed the idea of national parks in which Indians and wild country both be preserved. A little later, the writers Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Therein presented strong arguments concerning the importance of the continued survival of wild nature to the psychological well - being of mankind. The first book on conservation, Man and Nature , by George Perkins Marsh, appeared in the 1860s. In the same period the author and naturalist John Muir became a leading advocate of wilderness preservation. He was a founder of the Sierra Club. In 1872 the US Congress proclaimed...
Hoverfly colour patterns have often been labelled as mimetic, but only some species resemble their models closely, whereas others resemble their supposed models only vaguely, so are at best rather poor mimics (see, for example, the assessments in Howarth et al., 2000). There is a clear distinction in the literature between bumblebee mimics, which are usually accepted as such without question, and honeybee and wasp mimics, where a large proportion are generalized or imperfect to the human eye. Furthermore, there have been many conflicts among writers about the supposed models of particular species. For example, Criorhina asilica was labelled as a bumblebee mimic by Verrall (1901), but as a perfect or almost perfect honeybee mimic by most authors (e.g. Dlusskii, 1984 Roder, 1990), although Drees (1997) called it 'cryptic'.
Class 4 automata are poised midway between classes 2 and 3. At a metaphorical level, they seem to point to a digital future for biology and ecology. Somehow, everything alive will all end up in class 4. At a more practical level, this future can only appear if cellular automata, used appropriately, can make themselves indispensable vehicles for new knowledge that is expressed or expressible in traditional terms. Otherwise, there is a distinct danger, in this writer's opinion, that the cellular automaton will become a toy that generates the occasional 'insight', ultimately to be discarded, as nobody knows what the results actually mean.
It is sometimes held that the term 'ecology' is properly used to refer to a branch of biology - that which deals with the relations between organisms and their environments - and that it is somehow debased when it is used in connection with environmental campaigns, green parties, and so on. This thought leads some writers to avoid the term 'ecological problem' in relation to the objects of such campaigns, and to write instead of 'environmental problems'. Others - John Passmore, for example - do refer to 'ecological problems', but qualify this as a loose or extended usage of the term.2 Others again use the term 'ecology' to signify an outlook that is 'deeper' or more radical or fundamentalist in its view of the relation between humans and their environment than mere 'environmentalism'.3 Many of the problems described by Enzensberger can plausibly be classed as ecological or environmental problems. Other writers, however, have drawn the boundary even more widely. Joe Weston, for...
Pizer, BA, PA is a medical writer, health-care consultant, and physician assistant. He has written and edited 14 books and numerous articles about health and medicine. With Kenneth Mayer he co-authored the first book about AIDS for the general public, The AIDS Fact Book (Bantam Books, 1983), and co-edited The Emergence of AIDS Impact on Immunology, Microbiology, and Public Health (American Public Health Association Press, 2000) and The AIDS Pandemic Impact on Science and Society (Academic Press, 2005). With Chris Beyrer, he recently co-edited Public Health and Human Rights Evidence-Based Approaches, to be published in 2007 by Johns Hopkins University Press. His other works cover a variety of subjects in health and medicine, including the first books for the general public on organ transplants (Organ Transplants A Patients Guide with the Massachusetts General Organ Transplant Teams Harvard University Press, 1991) and stroke (The Stroke Fact Book, with Conn Foley, Bantam Books,...
Carson, Rachel Louise (1907-64) US science writer, who worked as a genetic biologist (1936-52) and later as editor for the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Her books, notably The Sea around Us (1951) and Silent Spring (1962), greatly increased public awareness of the natural environment and warned of the dangers of pollution.
IN 1958, when Rachel Carson undertook to write the book that became Silent Spring, she was fifty years old. She had spent most of her professional life as a marine biologist and writer with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. But now she was a world-famous author, thanks to the fabulous success of The Sea Around Us, published seven years before. Royalties from this book and its successor, The Edge of the Sea, had enabled her to devote full time to her own writing. While working for the government, she and her scientific colleagues had become alarmed by the widespread use of DDT and other long-lasting poisons in so-called agricultural control programs. Immediately after the war, when these dangers had already been recognized, she had tried in vain to interest some magazine in an article on the subject. A decade later, when the spraying of pesticides and herbicides (some of them many times as toxic as DDT) was causing wholesale destruction of wildlife and its habitat, and clearly...
Bernard Mandeville (who penned our opening quotation)1 observed, 'One of the greatest reasons why so few people understand themselves, is, that most writers are always teaching men what they should be, and hardly ever trouble their heads with telling them what they really are'. Here we have taken Mandeville's advice by trying to understand why animals and other organisms cooperate, rather than make any judgment about how they should morally behave. This is not always easy terms such as 'defect' and 'cheat' evoke negative reactions, perhaps in part because we are social species. On the flip side, just because self-interest can have the unexpected consequence of occasionally promoting cooperation, then this does not mean that we should encourage self-interest. Mandeville likewise did not believe that vice should be encouraged, but merely that some vices 'by the dextrous Management of a skilful Politician may be turned into Publick Benefits'.
General patterns of ecosystem change were acknowledged by early Roman writers and were described by many naturalists in the 18th and 19th centuries (Spurr 1952). The earliest scientific work was conducted in sand dunes by Cowles (1899), and patterns described by naturalists and Cowles were formalized by Clements in a series of papers during the early part of the 20th century. Clements' 1916 book on succession was particularly influential in establishing a paradigm for ecosystem dynamics. Clements promoted the view that ecosystems are organic
The second criterion was adopted because generators have the primary responsibility for determining whether a solid waste exhibits any of the characteristics. EPA regulation writers believed that unless generators were provided with widely available and uncomplicated methods for determining whether their wastes exhibited the characteristics, the identification system would not work (U.S. EPA 1990).
To examine this explanatory principle, the writer has at-tempted to construct a hypothesis to explain Bateson's Rule as this regularity is exemplified in the rare supernumerary double legs of Coleoptera. In the construction of this hypothesis, it was assumed that morphogenetic orienting information may undergo transformation from one type of coding to another, and that each transform or code is subject to characteristic limitations
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