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Losses also will result from the voluntary separation of talented public servants who are aware that their HIV status is negative. In part, this exists among individuals who fear that their pensions will have dwindled away by the time they reach their full-benefits retirement eligibility status. The political scientist John Daly argues that this occurred in Swaziland, where highly placed public servants with notable marketability chose to leave government service early and opted for early retirement and reduced benefits. This occurred because of fears regarding the long-term solvency of their pension plan resulting from the rising numbers of premature medical retirements due to HIV AIDS.48
ARCA is a publicly held company that provides collection, recycling and re-use services for major household appliances. The company collects used appliances from new appliance retailers and other sources and reconditions a portion of these units for resale. ARCA has its own national network of stores, called 'ENCORE . . . the reused appliance store'. The scale of the network is now increasing as the quantity and availability of re-usable white goods increase. Appliances that cannot be sold in the stores are recycled by ARCA in an environmentally responsible manner. Most importantly, ARCA has developed a formal alliance with Whirlpool Corporation to provide environmentally sound appliance recycling services for used appliances that are scrapped when Whirlpool sells new replacement units to apartment complexes that are being refurbished. ARCA has agreed to use Whirlpool appliances to support the 'early retirement' programs sponsored by energy utilities that replace older household...
Finally, perhaps the most profound alteration to the construction of this book in its fourth edition is that the revision has been the work of two rather than three of us. John Harper has very reasonably decided that the attractions of retirement and grand-fatherhood outweigh those of textbook co-authorship. For the two of us who remain, there is just one benefit it allows us to record publicly not only what a great pleasure it has been to have
A 2001 estimate by South Africa's Institute for Security Studies places the respective sizes of the Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) and the Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) at 35,000 and 4,000.60 Historically, military and paramilitary organizations have also served as primary vectors for the spread of sexually transmitted pathogens, including HIV. In 2001, according to estimates by the political scientist Lindy Heinecken, Zimbabwe's armed forces had an aggregate seroprevalence rate of 55 percent.61 Extensive planning will be needed now to replace the losses of more than 1,000 professionally trained personnel per year just to maintain minimal levels of professional competency. In Zimbabwe, HIV-related military attrition will create a loss of continuity at the command level and in the ranks as experienced higher-ranking officers are forced into early medical retirement. The military analyst Rodger Yeager of the Civil-Military Alliance to Combat HIV and AIDS notes that military staff attrition...
With globalisation, consumers (whether a dependent child, mother and homemaker, male or female worker, farmer, old-age pensioner) and end-of-chain buyers of goods made around the world must take on a new responsibility. They become 'consom'actors' (active consumers), as some non-governmental organisations (NGOs) put it. It may appear strange, after denouncing economism and development (Latouche, 2003), to see us 'rehabilitate' the consumer, even consumption, even if they are critical. Consumerism effectively participates fully in the growth society that is responsible for the social, intergenerational and ecological injustice that spans the globe. There is no growth in production without unlimited growth in consumption sparked by all possible means, especially by the systematic manipulation of the consumer. The growth society may effectively be defined as a society that is dominated by a growth economy and lets itself be swallowed up by the economy. Growth for the sake of growth,...
By 31 August 2000 the total outstanding consumer debt balloon to R17 million (two-thirds of the annual council budget) with no prospect in sight of this amount being recovered. The majority of debtors against whom legal action was taken were pensioners or unemployed. Some of these arrears went up to R8,000 an irrecoverable amount (FB
Because material selection is a fundamental part of design, it offers many opportunities for reducing environmental impact. In life cycle design, designers begin material selection by identifying the nature and source of raw materials. Then, they estimate the environmental impact caused by resource acquisition, processing, use, and retirement. The depth of the analysis and the number of life cycle stages varies with the project scope. Finally, they compare the proposed materials to determine the best choices.